Robert Fripp

Robert Fripp - © Sean Coon/ (

born on 16/5/1946 in Wimborne Minster, Dorset, United Kingdom

Robert Fripp

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Robert Fripp (born 16 May 1946) is an English guitarist, composer and record producer. As a guitarist for the progressive rock band King Crimson, Fripp has been the only member to have played in all of King Crimson's line-ups from their inception in the late 1960s to the present. He has also worked extensively as a studio musician, notably with singer David Bowie on the albums "Heroes" and Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps), Brian Eno, David Sylvian and contributed sounds to the Windows Vista operating system.[1][2] His complete discography lists more than seven hundred releases over four decades.[3]

He is ranked 62nd on Rolling Stone magazine's 2011 list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time after having been ranked by David Fricke 42nd on its 2003 list.[4][5] Tied with Andrés Segovia, he also is ranked 47th on Gibson's Top 50 guitarists of all time.[6]

His compositions often feature unusual time signatures, which have been influenced by classical and folk traditions. His innovations include Frippertronics, soundscapes, and new standard tuning.


Early life

The son of an estate agent from a working-class background, Robert Fripp was born in Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England. On Christmas Day 1957, aged 11, he got a "very cheap" guitar from his parents, saying "almost immediately I knew that this guitar was going to be my life". Fripp took guitar lessons with teachers Kathleen Gartell and Don Strike, which quickly advanced his skills: at 11 years of age, he was playing rock, moving on to traditional jazz at 13 and modern jazz at 15. At this time he was influenced by such modern jazz players and composers as Charlie Parker and Charlie Mingus.

Despite his jazz inclinations, Fripp's first band was a rock band called The Ravens, formed in 1961 when he was 15 and also featuring schoolmates Graham Wale (drums, subsequently replaced by Chris 'Fergy' Ferguson), Gordon Haskell (bass guitar), and Tino Licinio (vocals/guitar). In 1962 The Ravens split as Fripp concentrated on his O-level studies and joined his father's firm as a junior negotiator, at this point planning to study estate management in a South Kensington university and eventually take over his father's business. By 1964, aged 17, Fripp made the decision to become a professional musician.

For a while, Fripp played guitar in the Chewton Glen Hotel with a jazz band called The Douglas Ward Trio. Soon afterwards, he formed a rock and roll band called The League of Gentlemen (a name he would resurrect in 1980 for an entirely different band). In addition to Fripp on guitar, the lineup of the 1964 League of Gentlemen included his former Ravens bandmates Gordon Haskell and Tino Licinio, plus Stan Levy (drums) and Reg Matthews (vocals).

Still keeping his options open, Fripp left The League of Gentlemen in 1965 in order to study for A-levels at Bournemouth College, where he studied economics, economic history and political history, writing a special paper on social conditions of the mid-to-late 19th century;[7] it was there where he met future musical colleagues John Wetton, Richard Palmer-James and Greg Lake. He subsequently spent three further years playing light jazz in the Majestic Dance Orchestra at the Bournemouth Majestic Hotel (replacing future The Police guitarist Andy Summers, who had gone off to London with Zoot Money).[8] At age 21, going back home from college late at night, Fripp tuned on to Radio Luxemburg where he heard the last moments of "A Day in the Life". "Galvanized" by the experience, he went on to listen to Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Béla Bartók's string quartets, Antonín Dvořák's New World Symphony, Are You Experienced and John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers. Many years later, Fripp would recall that "although all the dialects are different, the voice was the same... I knew I couldn't say no".[9]

Giles, Giles & Fripp

Seeking to develop a more creative musical career, Fripp responded to an advertisement placed by Bournemouth brothers Peter Giles (bass guitar, vocals) and Michael Giles (drums, vocals), in which they hoped to recruit a singing organist. Despite being neither of these things, Fripp successfully auditioned for the brothers: the trio subsequently relocated to London and formed Giles, Giles and Fripp. Though ultimately unsuccessful as a live act, the band gained some attention following the release of two singles as well as an album (The Cheerful Insanity of Giles, Giles and Fripp).[10] Despite the recruitment of two further members - singer Judy Dyble (later of Fairport Convention and Trader Horne) and multi-instrumentalist Ian McDonald - Fripp felt that he was outgrowing the eccentric pop approach favoured by Peter Giles (preferring the more ambitious compositions being written by McDonald) and the band broke up in 1968.

King Crimson (1969-1974)

Almost immediately, Fripp, McDonald and Michael Giles formed the first lineup of King Crimson in mid-1968, recruiting Fripp's old Bournemouth College friend Greg Lake as lead singer and bass player, and McDonald's writing partner Peter Sinfield as lyricist, light show designer and general creative consultant. King Crimson's debut album, In the Court of the Crimson King, was released in late 1969 to great success: drawing on rock, jazz and European folk/classical music ideas, it is regarded as one of the most influential albums in the history of progressive rock. The band was tipped for stardom but (due to growing musical differences between Fripp on one side and Giles and McDonald on the other) broke up at the end of its first American tour in 1969. A despondent Fripp offered to leave the group if it would allow King Crimson to survive; however, Giles and McDonald had independently decided that the band's music was "more Fripp's than theirs" and that it would be better if they were the ones to leave.

During the recording of the band's second album In the Wake of Poseidon Greg Lake departed to form Emerson, Lake and Palmer, leaving Fripp and Sinfield as the only remaining founder members. They issued two more albums (Lizard and Islands) and were the only constants in a regularly changing King Crimson lineup. It included (at various times) Gordon Haskell, saxophonist/flute player Mel Collins, drummers Andy McCulloch and Ian Wallace and future Bad Company bass player Boz Burrell, in addition to a palette of guest players from Soft Machine, Keith Tippett's band, Brotherhood of Breath and Centipede. Fripp was listed as the sole composer of the band's music during this time, which built on the first album's blueprint but progressed further into jazz rock and free jazz while also taking form from Sinfield's esoteric lyrical and mythological concepts.

In 1971, Fripp ousted Sinfield and took over de facto leadership of King Crimson (although he has always formally rejected the label, preferring to describe his role as "quality control" or "a kind of glue"). From this point onwards, Fripp would be the only constant member of the band, which in turn would be defined primarily by his compositional and conceptual ideas (which drew on avant-garde jazz and improvisation mixed with a variety of hard rock and European influences, in particular the music of Béla Bartók). With avant-garde percussionist Jamie Muir, violinist David Cross, singing bass player John Wetton and former Yes drummer Bill Bruford now in the ranks, King Crimson produced three more albums of innovative and increasingly experimental rock, shedding members as they progressed: beginning with Larks' Tongues in Aspic, progressing with Starless and Bible Black and culminating in the benchmark avant-power trio album Red. Fripp formally disbanded the group in 1974, in what eventually turned out to be merely the first in a regular series of long hiatuses and further transformations.[11]

Side projects and collaborations: Brian Eno, David Bowie, Peter Gabriel and others

During King Crimson's less active periods, Fripp pursued a number of side-projects. He worked with Keith Tippett (and others who appeared on King Crimson records) on projects far from rock music, playing with and producing Centipede's Septober Energy in 1971 and Ovary Lodge in 1973. During this period he also worked with Van der Graaf Generator, playing on the 1970 album H to He, Who Am the Only One, and in 1971, on Pawn Hearts. He produced Matching Mole's 2nd LP Matching Mole's Little Red Record in 1972. Prior to forming the Larks-era KC, he collaborated on a spoken-word album with a woman he described as "a witch" but the resulting recording - Robert Fripp & Walli Elmark: The Cosmic Children Of Love - was never officially released.

Collaborating with Brian Eno, Fripp recorded (No Pussyfooting) in 1972, and Evening Star in 1974. These two albums featured experimentation with several avant-garde musical techniques which were new to rock music, including a tape delay system utilising dual reel to reel Revox tape machines that would come to play a central role in Fripp's later work. This system came to be known as "Frippertronics". In 1973, Fripp performed the guitar solo on "Baby's on Fire", perhaps the best-known track on Eno's debut solo album Here Come the Warm Jets. In 1975, Fripp and Brian Eno played several live shows in Europe, and Fripp also contributed guitar solos throughout Eno's landmark album, Another Green World.

Fripp started what was intended as a permanent sabbatical from his career in 1975, during which he cultivated an interest in the teachings of Gurdjieff via J. G. Bennett (studies which would later be influential in his work with Guitar Craft). He returned to musical work as a studio guitarist on Peter Gabriel's first self-titled album in 1976, released the following year. Fripp toured with Gabriel to support the album, but remained out of sight (either in the wings or behind a curtain) and used the pseudonym "Dusty Rhodes."[12] He produced and played on Gabriel's second album in 1978.

In 1977, Fripp received a phone call from Eno, who was working on David Bowie's album "Heroes". Fripp and Eno had collaborated on an album released in 1975 called Evening Star. On this album and in particular on the recording An Index of Metals there are strains that would influence the Bowie project two years later - most notably Side Two of the Bowie album. Fripp agreed to play guitar for Bowie's Heroes album, a move that initiated a series of collaborations with other musicians. Fripp soon collaborated with Daryl Hall on Sacred Songs.

Solo album Exposure

During this period, Fripp began working on solo material, with contributions from poet/lyricist Joanna Walton and several other musicians, including Eno, Gabriel, and Hall (including the latter's partner, John Oates), as well as Peter Hammill, Jerry Marotta, Phil Collins, Tony Levin and Terre Roche. This material eventually became his first solo album, Exposure, released in 1979, followed by the Frippertronics tour in the same year.

Further side projects and collaborations: Blondie, David Bowie, the League of Gentlemen

While living in New York, Fripp contributed to albums and live performances by Blondie (Parallel Lines) and Talking Heads (Fear of Music), and produced The Roches' first and third albums, which featured several of Fripp's characteristic guitar solos. A second set of creative sessions with David Bowie produced distinctive guitar parts on Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps) (1980) and prior to that, Peter Gabriel's third solo album known as 'Melt'. With Blondie, Fripp appeared live on stage at Hammersmith Odeon on 12 January 1980 participating in the band's cover version of Bowie's ""Heroes"". This recording was on the 12" single of Atomic released the same year and later turned up as a bonus track on CD pressings of Blondie's album Eat to the Beat.

Fripp's collaboration with bassist Busta Jones, drummer Paul Duskin, and vocals by David Byrne (Byrne credited as Absalm el Habib) produced God Save the Queen/Under Heavy Manners in the following year. He simultaneously assembled what he called a "second-division touring new wave instrumental dance band" under the name League of Gentlemen, with bassist Sara Lee, keyboardist Barry Andrews and drummer Johnny Toobad (later replaced by Kevin Wilkinson). The LOG toured for the duration of 1980.

In 1985 he produced the album Journey to Inaccessible Places by classical pianist Elan Sicroff, released on the Editions E.G. label.[13]

King Crimson (1981-1984)

1981 saw the formation of a new King Crimson lineup, reuniting Fripp with drummer Bill Bruford and opening a new partnership with two American musicians: bass guitarist/Chapman Stick player Tony Levin (who had played with Fripp on Exposure and in the first Peter Gabriel touring band) and Adrian Belew, a singer and guitarist who had previously played with Bowie, Talking Heads and Frank Zappa. Although the band had been conceptualised under the name Discipline it came to Fripp's attention that the other members thought the name King Crimson was more appropriate: for Fripp, King Crimson had always been "a way of doing things" rather than a particular group of musicians, and the current group felt that their music captured that methodology. With the more pop-inspired Belew as main songwriter (complementing Fripp as main instrumental composer) the band took on a new style incorporating a gamelan-inspired continuo minimalism, New York influences from post-punk to go-go, and textured experiments with guitar synthesizers. After releasing three albums (Discipline, Beat, Three of a Perfect Pair), this new King Crimson broke up in 1984.

During this period Fripp made two records with his old friend Andy Summers of The Police. On I Advance Masked, Fripp and Summers played all the instruments. Bewitched was dominated more by Summers, who produced the record and collaborated with other musicians in addition to Fripp.

In 1982 Fripp produced and played guitar on Keep on Doing by The Roches. As in his previous guesting on David Bowie's Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps) (which also featured Pete Townshend and Chuck Hammer on guitar synthesizer), Fripp's distinctive guitar style and sound that characterised his music of this period is featured alongside the sisters' songs and harmony.

Guitar Craft

Fripp was offered a teaching position at the American Society for Continuous Education (ASCE) in Claymont Court, West Virginia in 1984. He had been involved with the ASCE since 1978, eventually serving on its board of directors, and had long been considering the idea of teaching guitar. His course, Guitar Craft, was begun in 1985, an offshoot of which was a performance group, "The League of Crafty Guitarists", which has released several albums. In 1986, he released the first of two collaborations with his wife, Toyah Willcox. The members of the California Guitar Trio are former members of The League of Crafty Guitarists and have also toured with King Crimson. Fripp is the patron of the Guitar Circle of Europe, which was founded in 2007,[15] and of the Seattle Circle Guitar School, which was founded in 2010.[16]

In February 2009, Fripp recommended that Guitar Craft cease to exist on its 25th anniversary in 2010.[17]


Fripp returned to recording solo in 1994, using an updated version of the Frippertronics technique that creates loops employing digital technology instead of analogue tapes. Fripp has released a number of records that he called "Soundscapes", including 1999, Radiophonics, A Blessing of Tears, That Which Passes, November Suite, The Gates of Paradise, Love Cannot Bear and At the End of Time, as well as numerous download-only live recordings. (The sampler Pie Jesu consists of material compiled from A Blessing of Tears and The Gates of Paradise.)

1990s collaborations with David Sylvian and others

Fripp's collaborations with David Sylvian feature some of his most exuberant guitar playing. Fripp contributed to Sylvian's twenty-minute track "Steel Cathedrals" from his Alchemy: An Index of Possibilities album of 1985. Then Fripp performed on several tracks from Sylvian's 1986 release, Gone to Earth.

In late 1991, Fripp had asked Sylvian to join a re-forming King Crimson as a vocalist. Sylvian declined the invitation, but proposed a possible collaboration between the two that would eventually become a tour of Japan and Italy in the spring of 1992.

In July 1993, Sylvian and Fripp released the collaborative effort The First Day. Other contributors were soon-to-be King Crimson member Trey Gunn on Chapman Stick and Jerry Marotta (who, like Sylvian, almost became a member of King Crimson) on drums. When the group toured to promote the CD, future King Crimson member Pat Mastelotto took over the drumming spot. The live document Damage was released in 1994, as was the joint venture, Redemption – Approaching Silence, which featured Sylvian's ambient sound sculptures (Approaching Silence) accompanying Fripp reading his own text (Redemption).[18]

During the early and mid-1990s Fripp contributed guitar/soundscapes to Lifeforms (1994) by the Future Sound of London and Cydonia (released 2001) by the Orb, as well as FFWD, a collaborative effort with the latter's members. In addition, Fripp worked with Brian Eno co-writing and supplying guitar to two tracks for a CD-ROM project released in 1994 entitled Headcandy created by Chris Juul and Doug Jipson. Eno thought the visual aspects of the disc (video feedback effects) were very disappointing upon completion, and regretted participation. During this period, Fripp also contributed to albums by No-Man and the Beloved (1994's Flowermouth and 1996's X, respectively). He also contributed soundscapes and guitar to two albums by the UK band Iona: 1993's Beyond These Shores and 1996's Journey into the Morn.

King Crimson redux (1994-2010)

In late 1994, Fripp re-formed the 1981 line-up of King Crimson for its fifth incarnation, adding Trey Gunn and drummer Pat Mastelotto in a configuration known as the "double trio" (the line-up included two guitars, two bass/Stick players and two drummers). This line-up released the VROOOM EP in 1994, and the Thrak album in 1995.

Though musically (and relatively commercially) successful, the double-trio King Crimson proved difficult to sustain in the long-term. From 1997 to 1999, the band "fraKctalised" into five experimental instrumental sub-groups known as ProjeKcts. By 1998 Bruford had quit the band altogether: in 2000, Fripp, Belew, Gunn and Mastelotto reunited as a four-piece King Crimson (minus Levin, who was busy with session work). This lineup produced two studio albums, the construKction of light in 2000 and The Power to Believe in 2003, which took on a more metallic, heavily electronic approach. Gunn departed at the end of 2003.

Although Levin immediately returned to the band, another hiatus followed until King Crimson reappeared in 2007 with a second drummer - Gavin Harrison of Porcupine Tree - appended to the lineup, This version of the band played a brief eastern USA tour in 2008, reassessing its 1981-2003 back catalogue and approach and introducing lengthy percussion duets between the two drummers. No new original material was recorded, and in 2010, Fripp announced that King Crimson were on another indefinite hiatus.[19]

Recent work: G3, Porcupine Tree, Slow Music, Theo Travis, The Humans, Jakko Jakszyk, Others

During 2004, Fripp toured with Joe Satriani and Steve Vai as the guitar trio G3. He also worked at Microsoft's studios to record new sounds and atmospheres for Windows Vista.[20][21]

this interesting factoid: in addition to 200 million Vista users with the 4 note splash, an extract from the Soundscapes' Vista sessions is estimated to strike up 91% of 32 trillion times on the new MS Mail programme this year. So, one of the planet’s least popular music forms will also be the planet’s most sounded in 2008. This has to be some kind of a record.

Fripp's online diary at[22]

In late 2005 and early 2006, Fripp joined sometime R.E.M./Nine Inch Nails drummer Bill Rieflin's improvisational Slow Music project, along with guitarist Peter Buck, Fred Chalenor (acoustic bass), Matt Chamberlain (drums) and Hector Zazou (electronics). This collective of musicians toured the west coast of America in May 2006.

In 2006 Fripp contributed his composition "At The End Of Time" to the Artists for Charity album Guitarists 4 the Kids, produced by Slang Productions, to assist World Vision Canada in helping underprivileged children.[23] Throughout 2006, Fripp would perform many solo concerts of soundscapes in intimate settings, especially in churches around the West Midlands in England, where he lives. In October 2006, ProjeKct Six (Robert Fripp, Adrian Belew) played at select venues on the east coast of the U.S.,[24] opening for Porcupine Tree. In the same year, Fripp contributed soundscapes to two songs for Porcupine Tree's Fear of a Blank Planet - "Way Out of Here" and "Nil Recurring," the second of which was released in September 2007 as part of the "Nil Recurring" EP. Fripp also sporadically performed Soundscapes as an opening act for Porcupine Tree on various tours from 2006 through 2009.

In 2008, Fripp collaborated with Theo Travis on an album of guitar and flute-or-saxophone duets called 'Thread', and the duo played a brief English tour in 2009 (repeating the collaboration with the Follow album in 2012). Also in 2009, Fripp played a concert with the band The Humans (which consists of his wife Toyah Willcox, Bill Rieflin and Chris Wong), appeared on Judy Dyble's Talking With Strangers (along with Pat Mastelotto and others) and played on two tracks on Jakko Jakszyk's album The Bruised Romantic Glee Club. In 2010, Fripp contributed a guitar solo to an extended version of the song 'Heathen Child' by Grinderman, released as a B-side on the 'Super Heathen Child' single.

A Scarcity of Miracles, musical 'retirement' and new lineup of King Crimson

In May 2011, Jakko Jakszyk, Robert Fripp and Mel Collins released a song album called A Scarcity of Miracles: A King Crimson ProjeKct on the Panegyric label. The album also featured contributions by Tony Levin and Gavin Harrison, leading to speculation that the project was a dry run for a new King Crimson.

In an interview published 3 August 2012, Fripp stated that he had retired from working as a professional musician, citing long-standing differences with Universal Music Group and stating that working within the music industry had become "a joyless exercise in futility".[25][26][27] This retirement proved to be short-lived, lasting as long as it took to come to a settlement with UMG.

In his online diary entry for 6 September 2013, Fripp announced the return of King Crimson as a seven-piece unit with "four Englishmen and three Americans". The new lineup was Fripp, Levin, both Mastelotto and Harrison on drums, returning 1970s band member Mel Collins and two new members: Jakko Jakszyk as singer and second guitarist, and Bill Rieflin as a third drummer.[28] This version of the band went on tour in 2014 and 2015 with a setlist reworking and reconfiguring the band's 1960s and 1970s material (plus songs from A Scarcity of Miracles and new compositions). In early 2016, it was announced that former Lemon Trees/Beady Eye drummer Jeremy Stacy would substitute for Rieflin on that year's tour, while the latter was on a musical sabbatical.


During the early years of King Crimson (1968–74), Fripp used two Gibson Les Paul guitars from 1957 and 1959. The '57 guitar featured three humbucker pick-ups (with one volume control on the pickguard controlling the middle pick-up). A signature model named for the guitarist (Crimson Guitars Robert Fripp Signature)[29] features Fernandes Sustainer and MIDI elements, with a Les Paul Model Body. Another difference from the Gibson Les Paul is that Fripp's guitar is built using a deep set neck tenon rather than a traditional set neck.

Fripp recommended that Guitar Craft students adopt the Ovation 1867 Legend steel-string guitar, which had a shallow body.[30][31] "Fripp liked the way the Ovation 1867 fitted against his body, which made it possible for him to assume the right-arm picking position he had developed using electric guitars over the years; on deeper-bodied guitars, the Frippian arm position is impossible without uncomfortable contortions", according to Tamm.[30] While the 1867 Legend is no longer manufactured, it influenced the design of the Guitar Craft Pro Model of Guitar Craft Guitars, which has been endorsed by Fripp.[32]

Guitar technique

Fripp began playing guitar at the age of eleven.[33] When he started, he was tone deaf and had no rhythmical sense, weaknesses which led him later to comment "Music so wishes to be heard that it sometimes calls on unlikely characters to give it voice."[34] He was also naturally left-handed but opted to play the guitar right-handed.[35]

While being taught guitar basics by his teacher Don Strike,[36][37] Fripp began to develop the technique of crosspicking, which became one of his specialities.[36] Fripp teaches crosspicking to his students in Guitar Craft.[38]

In 1985, Fripp began using a tuning he called "New Standard tuning"[39] (C2-G2-D3-A3-E4-G4), which would also become popularised in Guitar Craft.[40]

Fripp's guitar technique, unlike most rock guitarists of his era, is not blues-based but rather influenced by avant-garde jazz and European classical music. He combines rapid alternate picking and crosspicking with motifs employing whole-tone or diminished pitch structures and sixteenth-note patterns for long stretches in a form called moto perpetuo (perpetual motion).[39]

Rather than stand when performing, he seats himself on a stool (unusual for a performer in rock music), and by doing so was called in a May 1974 issue of Guitar Player "the guitarist who sits on stage."[41]

Comments from other artists

Many artists have cited Fripp as an influence or have expressed their admiration for him, including Steven Wilson,[42] Omar Rodríguez-López,[43] Trey Anastasio of Phish,[44] St. Vincent,[45] Kirk Hammett of Metallica,[46] Michael Angelo Batio,[47] Geoff Tate of Queensrÿche,[48] Nels Cline of Wilco,[49] Adam Jones of Tool,[50] Merzbow,[51] Vernon Reid of Living Colour,[52] Ben Weinman of The Dillinger Escape Plan,[53][54] Paul Masvidal of Cynic,[55] Steve Stevens of Billy Idol,[56] Chris Haskett of Rollins Band,[57] Ivar Bjørnson of Enslaved,[58] Dylan Carlson of Earth,[59] Dan Briggs,[60] Denis "Piggy" D'Amour of Voivod,[61] Daniel Mongrain,[62] Marcus Henderson,[63] Paul Lemos of Controlled Bleeding,[64] Richard Pinhas,[65] Nick Reinhart of Tera Melos,[66] Leopold Ross,[67] electronic musician Rustie,[68] film director Hal Hartley,[69] and Sean Beavan.[70]

Personal life

Fripp married Toyah Willcox in 1986 in Poole, Dorset, England.[71] From December 1987 until July 1999 they lived at and renovated Reddish House, the former home of Cecil Beaton, in Broad Chalke Wiltshire.[72][73] At present his home is in Pershore, Worcestershire.[74] The couple have no children and have arranged their will so as to leave their entire fortune to the establishment of a musical educational trust for children.[75]

Fripp is the patron of the Seattle Circle Guitar School and the Shallal Dance Theatre in Penzance, England.[16] He also has had engagements as a motivational speaker, often at events with his sister Patricia,[76] who is a keynote speaker and speech coach.[77]

Alfie Fripp, the last of the "39ers", shot down by the Luftwaffe and then held in 12 different POW camps during World War II, was his uncle.[78]

Fripp is a pescetarian.[79]

Discipline Global Mobile

In 1992, Fripp and producer/online content developer David Singleton co-founded Discipline Global Mobile (DGM) as an independent music label. DGM releases music by Fripp, KC, related acts, and other artists in CDs and in downloadable files. A 1998 Billboard profile stated that DGM had ten staff-members in Salisbury (England) and Los Angeles (USA). DGM has an aim "to be a model of ethical business in an industry founded on exploitation, oiled by deceit, riven with theft and fueled by greed."[80] DGM insists that its artists retain all copyrights; consequently, even DGM's "knotwork" corporate-logo (pictured above) is owned by its designer,[81] Steve Ball;[82] the "knotwork" logo appeared earlier on the cover of later versions of the Discipline album. DGM's aims were called "exemplary" by Martin (1997), who wrote that "Fripp has done something very important for the possibilities of experimental music" in creating DGM, which "has played a major role in creating favorable conditions for" King Crimson.[83]

DGM publishes an on-line diary by Fripp, who often comments on performances and on relations with fans. A moderated forum allows fans to ask questions or to leave comments. Together, Fripp's diary and the fan forum display delayed dialogs in which Fripp and fans discuss diary-entries and forum-postings.[84]

Copyright complaints against Grooveshark

In 2011, Fripp complained that the music-distribution service Grooveshark continued to stream his music despite his having delivered repeated takedown notices. Fripp and Grooveshark's correspondence was published by Digital Music News[85][86][87] and in his diaries,[88] which appear on the website of Discipline Global Mobile.[84]

Fripp's published exchange was included in a suit against Grooveshark by Universal Music Group, which was filed in November 2011.[85][89] UMG cited internal documents revealing that Grooveshark employees uploaded thousands of illegal copies of UMG-owned recordings.[89] Fripp had previous experience protecting his music in litigation with music companies.[90]


Fripp has been extremely active as a recording musician and a producer. He has contributed to more than 700 official releases. The Robert Fripp Discography Summary, compiled by John Relph, also lists 120 compilations and 315 unauthorised releases (such as bootlegs). This means that more than 1100 releases (including both official and unofficial ones, as well as both studio and live recordings) can be found with Fripp participating. Studio releases are listed here.

Giles, Giles & Fripp

  • 1968 : The Cheerful Insanity of Giles, Giles and Fripp
  • 2001 : The Brondesbury Tapes
  • 2001 : Metamorphosis


Studio albums

  • 1979 : Exposure
  • 1980 : God Save the Queen/Under Heavy Manners
  • 1981 : Let the Power Fall: An Album of Frippertronics
  • 1998 : The Gates Of Paradise

Live albums

  • 1994 : 1999: Soundscapes Live in Argentina
  • 1995 : Radiophonics: 1995 Soundscapes volume 1
  • 1995 : A Blessing of Tears: 1995 Soundscapes volume 2
  • 1996 : That Which Passes: 1995 Soundscapes volume 3
  • 1998 : November Suite
  • 2005 : Love Cannot Bear
  • 2007 : At the End of Time: Churchscapes Live in England & Estonia

Brian Eno

  • 1973 : (No Pussyfooting)
  • 1974 : Here Come the Warm Jets
  • 1975 : Evening Star
  • 1975 : Another Green World
  • 1994 : The essential Fripp & Eno
  • 1998 : Lightness: For The Marble Palace
  • 2004 : The Equatorial Stars
  • 2007 : Beyond Even (1992-2006)

David Bowie

  • 1977 : "Heroes"
  • 1980 : Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps)

David Sylvian

  • 1993 : The First Day
  • 1993 : Darshan (The Road To Graceland)
  • 1994 : Damage: Live

Andy Summers

  • 1982 : I Advance Masked
  • 1984 : Bewitched
  • 1984 : Andy Summers & Robert Fripp Speak Out - Promo album

The League of Gentlemen

  • 1981 : The League of Gentlemen
  • 1996 : Thrang Thrang Gozinbulx

The League of Crafty Guitarists

  • 1986 : The League of Crafty Guitarists Live !
  • 1990 : Live II
  • 1991 : A show of hands
  • 1995 : Intergalactic Boogie Express

Theo Travis

  • 2008 : Thread
  • 2012 : Follow
  • 2012 : Discretion


  • 1994 : 1999 Soundscapes: Live in Argentina
  • 1995 : A Blessing of Tears: 1995 Soundscapes, Vol. 2
  • 1996 :: Radiophonics: 1995 Soundscapes, Vol. 1
  • 1996 : That Which Passes: 1995 Soundscapes, Vol. 3
  • 1997 : November Suite: Soundscapes - Live at Green Park Station 1996

Other recordings

  • 1981 : The Warner Brothers Music Show - The Return Of King Crimson (interviews with music inserts)
  • 1985 : Network (EP, compilation)
  • 1986 : The Lady or the Tiger (With Toyah Wilcox)
  • 1991 : Kneeling at the Shrine (With Sunday All Over the World)
  • 1993 : The Bridge Between (With The Robert Fripp String Quintet)
  • 1994 : FFWD (With The Orb)
  • 1999 : The Repercussions of Angelic Behavior (With Bill Rieflin & Trey Gunn)
  • 2000 : A Temple in the Clouds (With Jeffrey Fayman)
  • 2007 : Robert Fripp : Unplugged - 3 CD Box-set
  • 2011 : A Scarcity of Miracles (With Mel Collins & Jakko Jakszyk)
  • 2012 : The Wine of Silence (With Andrew Keeling, David Singleton & Het Metropole Orkest)
  • 2015 : Starless Starlight : David Cross & Robert Fripp


  • 1970 : H to he who am the only one : Van Der Graaf Generator
  • 1971 : Pawn Hearts : Van Der Graaf Generator
  • 1971 : Fools Mate : Peter Hammill
  • 1971 : Septober energy : Centipede
  • 1972 : Blueprint : Keith Tippett
  • 1972 : Matching Mole's Little Red Record : Matching Mole
  • 1973 : Ovary Lodge : Keith Tippett
  • 1977 : Peter Gabriel I : Peter Gabriel
  • 1978 : Parallel lines : Blondie
  • 1978 : Peter Gabriel II : Peter Gabriel
  • 1979 : Fear of music : Talking Heads
  • 1979 : The Roches : The Roches
  • 1980 : Sacred songs : Daryl Hall
  • 1980 : Peter Gabriel III : Peter Gabriel
  • 1982 : Keep on doing : The Roches
  • 1985 : Alchemy: An Index of Possibilities : David Sylvian
  • 1986 : Gone to earth David Sylvian
  • 1994 : Sidi Mansour : Rimitti
  • 1994 : Flowermouth : No Man
  • 1994 : Battle Lines : John Wetton
  • 1995 : Cheikha Rimitti Featuring Robert Fripp and Flea : Cheikha [Unreleased Tracks From The Sidi Mansour Album]
  • 1998 : Arkangel : John Wetton
  • 1999 : Birth of a Giant : Bill Rieflin
  • 1999 : Approaching Silence : David Sylvian
  • 2000 : Everything and Nothing : David Sylvian
  • 2001 : Sinister : John Wetton
  • 2002 : Trance Spirits : Steve Roach & Jeffrey Fayman With Robert Fripp & Momodou Kah
  • 2002 : Camphor : David Sylvian
  • 2006 : Side three : Adrian Belew
  • 2011 : Raised in captivity : John Wetton

See also

  • List of ambient music artists


  1. ^ "Robert Fripp - Behind the scenes at Windows Vista recording session". Microsoft. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  2. ^ Veitch, Martin. "Robert Fripp's Vista sounds are here". The Inquirer. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "Robert Fripp discography: Summary of releases". 
  4. ^ Panel of experts (2012). "100 greatest guitarists". Rolling Stone. (subscription required). Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  5. ^ Fricke, David (17 September 2003). "100 greatest guitarists of all time: David Fricke's picks". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Drozdowski, Ted (24 May 2010). " Top 50 guitarists of all time–50 to 41". Besides Ted Drozdowski, a panel of other experts and readers. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  8. ^ Sid Smith. In the Court of King Crimson. London: Helter Skelter Publishing, 2002, pp. 16-18.
  9. ^ "Robert Fripp: New York·Wimborne". Late Night in Concert. 1985. BBC Television. BBC Two. 
  10. ^ Cheerful Insanity of Giles Giles & Fripp. "Cheerful Insanity of Giles Giles & Fripp: Music". Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  11. ^ "The day the music died". Financial Times. 
  12. ^ "Robert Fripp Discography: Other Unauthorized Releases". Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  13. ^ Elan Sicroff bio at
  14. ^ Tamm (2003, p. 127)
  15. ^ Guitar Circle of Europe. "Home". Guitar Circle of Europe. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011 
  16. ^ a b Fripp, Robert. "A Few Words from the Patron". Seattle Circle Guitar School. Retrieved 19 November 2011 
  17. ^ Fripp, Robert. "Robert Fripp's diary: Saturday, 14 February 2009". Discipline Global Mobile. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  18. ^ "Sylvian & Fripp Reissued". DGM Live. 2014-06-13. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  19. ^ "Robert Fripp's Diary – entry for December 5, 2010". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  20. ^ "Robert Fripp-Behind the scenes at Windows Vista recording session". Channel 9. Microsoft. 12 January 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2006. 
  21. ^ "Making Windows Vista sing: Robert Fripp and the Vista melody". Channel 9. Microsoft. 2 March 2007. 
  22. ^ Fripp, Robert. "Robert Fripp's diary for Saturday, 8th November 2008". Discipline Global Mobile. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. 
  23. ^ "Slang Productions - Guitarists 4 the Kids". Slang Productions. 11 September 2006. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "News". Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  25. ^ Hunter, Ludovic (3 August 2012). "The day the music died". Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  26. ^ "Robert Fripp quit music | DPRP News Blog". 4 September 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  27. ^ "King Crimson's Robert Fripp Quits Music Biz | Rock News | News". Planet Rock. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  28. ^ "Robert Fripp's Diary for Friday, September 6, 2013". Discipline Global Mobile. 6 September 2013. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  29. ^ "Robert Fripp Guitars | | the gallery". Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  30. ^ a b Tamm (2003, p. 130)
  31. ^ Fripp, Robert (2004). An introduction to Guitar Craft. Guitar Craft Monographs. Guitar Craft. Archived from the original on 5 August 2004. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  32. ^ "- - - Guitar Craft Guitars - - -". 
  33. ^ "Robert Fripp bio". Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  34. ^ Tamm (2003, p. 16, "Chapter two: The guitarist and the practice of music")
  35. ^ Sid Smith. In the Court f King Crimson. London: Helter Skelter Publishing, 2002, p.15
  36. ^ a b Tamm (2003, p. 14)
  37. ^ "History of the Guitar Craft Plectrum", by Steve Ball,
  38. ^ Tamm (2003, pp. 137 and 141 (Chapter 10))
  39. ^ a b Baldwin, Douglas (November 2007). "Guitar Heroes: How to Play Like 26 Guitar Gods from Atkins to Zappa", edited by Jude Gold and Matt Blackett, Guitar Player p.111.
  40. ^ Tamm (2003, pp. 134, 142, 148 (Chapter 10); c.f. pp. 160, 4)
  41. ^ "Interview with Robert Fripp in Guitar Player (1974)". 
  42. ^ Prasad, Anil (2010). "Porcupine Tree | Dream logic". Innerviews. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Fripp is my number one influence, no question. [...] When I was very young and first heard those King Crimson records, I would think “That’s just wrong. You’re playing the guitar wrong, mate!” But the more you start to listen to Fripp’s playing, the more you appreciate his choices of notes. Fripp is a very unique man and his guitar playing reflects that. He doesn’t pick notes in any sort of logical way, but he plays them with conviction. He blew my mind open when I heard his solos on King Crimson’s “A Sailor’s Tail” and Brian Eno’s “Baby’s on Fire.” Just extraordinary stuff. I’ll never be able to play like that because you have to have the mind of Fripp to do that, but there is certainly an influence from him in terms of choosing unique notes and making them sound beautiful. 
  43. ^ Larzen, Geir. "Mars Volta". (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 14 February 2005. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Q: Dette til tross, du kan ikke nekte for å være utpreget influert av King Crimson og Robert Fripp.
    Omar Rodríguez-López: Selvfølgelig ikke! Jeg gjør faktisk ingen forsøk på å skjule min affekt for Fripps arbeider. [...] ble jeg introdusert for King Crimson, og på nytt kollapset alt, men på en konstruktiv måte. [...] Fripp tryllet i alle fall fram de vakreste toner jeg hadde hørt, og han kunne ikke ha gitt seg til kjenne på et mer gunstig tidspunkt i mitt liv. [...] Ingen kan nekte for at Robert Fripp, også helt tidlig i karrieren, var opptatt av jazz eller de blå notene. Durskalaer og oppstemte gjengroprefrenger har aldri appellert til meg, så da King Crimson ble meg til del var det som å smake på en bit av himmelriket.
    (Q: You can't deny that you're influenced by Robert Fripp and King Crimson, right?
    Omar Rodríguez-López: No, of course not! I make no attempt to hide my affection for Fripps work. [...] I was introduced to King Crimson and again everything collapsed, but in a constructive way. [...] Fripp made the most beautiful notes that I had heard, and he couldn't have been introduced to me at a better time in my life. [...] As soon as someone discovers jazz, it will influence their approach irrespective of which style or band the person concerned contributes to. It can't be denied that Robert Fripp was into jazz throughout his career or the blue notes. The major-scales and euphoric stadium-rock choruses have never appealed to me so when I got familiar with King Crimson's music it was like getting a taste of heaven.)
  44. ^ "Phish Scales: Trey Anastasio Breaks Down His Improvisation Techniques". Guitar World. New York City. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2017. I’m a big fan of Robert Fripp [guitarist and founder of Sixties/Seventies progressive rock masters King Crimson—GW Ed.], and I still love a lot of his stuff. I was especially into his work with Brian Eno, on albums such as Another Green World, and I was really into King Crimson’s Larks Tongues in Aspic, which is one of my all-time favorite albums. I like Red, too. Then there’s the stuff he did later for his Discipline Records label. The "patterny" thing that Fripp is known for had a big influence on me. 
  45. ^ Jim (20 January 2017). "Video: Annie Clark of St. Vincent Talks Gear and Influence at NAMM 2017" (video). Event occurs at 1:34. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  46. ^ Gore, Joe (1 October 1996). "Kirkus Maximus: The Expanding World of Kirk Hammett". Guitar Player. Vol. 30 no. 10. pp. 58–62, 66. Interviewer: In the past it was always riffs front and center, interspersed with hard solos. Now you explore the middle ground and distance with coloristic parts that are neither monster riffs nor flashy solos.
    Kirk Hammett: There are fewer 30-part orchestrated guitar sections, fewer massive, bludgeoning riffs perfectly replicated by lames. There are more flexible ideas, more artistic flourishes, more colors. I've probably been influenced in that direction by people like Robert Fripp, Adrian Belew and David Torn. I'm more interested in using guitar sounds as textures and using effects in a more textural fashion. To paraphrase Robert Fripp, I'm more interested in painting a soundscape like he and Adrian Belew do in King Crimson, on Bowie records and in Fripp's solo stuff. Fripp is one of the most interesting guitar players I've ever heard--and I've just discovered him!
  47. ^ Pusey, Andre (1 December 2011). "World's Fastest Guitarist Michael Angelo Batio: "I Absolutely Love What I Do"". Retrieved 23 February 2017. [...] A few years after that, I was really influenced by Al DiMeola, Robert Fripp, John McLaughlin and keyboardist Keith Emerson. 
  48. ^ Greg M. Schwartz. "Revolution Now | An Interview with Queensryche". PopMatters. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  49. ^ Erickson, Anne (15 April 2010). "Interview: Nels Cline". Premier Guitar. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  50. ^ Angle, Brad (15 January 2015). "Tool's Adam Jones: My 10 Favorite Guitarists". Guitar World. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Fripp’s playing caused me to “wake up” to music when I was younger. 
  51. ^ Hensley, Chad (1999). "The Beauty of Noise: An interview with Masami Akita of Merzbow". EsoTerra. Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
  52. ^ "Interview:Musician's Friend's Artist Spotlight Exclusive Interview- A conversation with Vernon Reid". 27 July 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2017. [...] Robert Fripp is definitely another one who I would consider an influence. 
  53. ^ Rosen, Steven (23 June 2014). "Ben Weinman: 'Guitarists Are Not Creative Anymore - They're Playing Around With Presets'". Ultimate Guitar. Retrieved 20 February 2017. [...] when I got into more technical guitar playing and things like that, I jumped right to fusion. So things like Crimson and stuff like that. [...] I was really heavily into Robert Fripp [...] 
  54. ^ Massie, Andrew (15 July 2015). "The Rockpit interviews - BEN WEINMAN - DILLINGER ESCAPE PLAN". The Rockpit. Retrieved 20 February 2017. I guess some of my biggest influences are people like John Mclaughlin from Mahavishnu Orchestra, Robert Fripp from King Crimson [...] 
  55. ^ Laci, David (April 2005). "Interview with Paul Masvidal - Mirgilus Siculorum". Retrieved 21 February 2017. [...] At the time I wrote the introduction to "Textures", I was a big fan of Robert Fripp and his Crafty League of Guitarists records. I later learned about King Crimson having that side too, because of Robert's influence. All that counterpoint madness he wrote was brilliant. Also the use of loops and ambient environments as backdrops to these sonically beautiful pieces. Much of our progressive jazz/fusion influences found their way into the songs in the form of our chord choices and harmony. 
  56. ^ "Steve Stevens-The Korea Guitar Interview". 17 October 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2017. [...] For me, people are surprised to know, my true guitar heroes were Robert Fripp and Steve Howe and guys who were playing all different styles within the context of a rock band. I always loved the idea of how they approached guitar, which is to orchestrate the song with different guitar sounds and different guitar styles. [...] 
  57. ^ "INTERVIEW. 041 - Chris Haskett (Rollins Band)". 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2017. [...] the biggest ones that influenced the playing I did in the Rollins Band would have to be the “Red/Starless & Bible Black/Lark’s Tongue”-era King Crimson work of Fripp [...] 
  58. ^ Benek (11 May 2013). "Enslaved Interview". Retrieved 25 February 2017. 
  59. ^ Hughes, Rob (September 2014). "My Prog Hero: Dylan Carlson". Prog. No. 49. (published 28 October 2014). Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  60. ^ "New "What's In My Bag?" Episode With Dan Briggs of Between the Buried and Me" (video). Los Angeles, California: Amoeba Music (published 5 February 2014). 3 February 2014. Event occurs at 1:32. Retrieved 31 August 2017. Robert Fripp is one of the biggest inspirations on me as a musician, someone who's had a career since the 60s and he's like constantly been an innovator, constantly pushing himself, trying new things, just constant source of inspiration [...] 
  61. ^ Williams, Rob (29 July 2009). "Metal legends still soldiering on four years after guitarist's death". Winnipeg Free Press. Barcelona, Spain. Retrieved 25 February 2017. [...] They are very Voivodian and we can tell the influences of Piggy more than (his work for) Voivod. He was an Alex Lifeson fan, and a fan of Robert Fripp [...] 
  62. ^ Ben (13 January 2003). "Entretien avec Daniel le 13 janvier 2003 (par Ben)". (in French). Retrieved 25 February 2017. Mes guitaristes préférés sont Allan Holdsworth, Jason Becker, Piggy (Denis D'amour, VOIVOD), Marty Friedman, Devin Townsend, Robert Fripp [...] (My favorite guitarists are Allan Holdsworth, Jason Becker, Piggy (Denis D'amour, VOIVOD), Marty Friedman, Devin Townsend, Robert Fripp.) 
  63. ^ Adel, Mohamed (25 January 2014). "Exclusive: An Interview with Guitar Hero Lead Guitarist "Marcus Henderson"". Retrieved 23 February 2017. I have so many favorite guitar players; Piggy from Voivod, Randy Rhoads, Robert Fripp, Ty Tabor, Dime, I can't list them all here but they continue to shape my playing and note choices long after they have turned off their amps. 
  64. ^ "Controlled Bleeding's Paul Lemos Discusses the Ten Albums that Most Influenced Him". Heathen Harvest. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2017. 
  65. ^ Walcroft, Justin (2 November 2016). "The Way Forward: An Interview With Electronic Music Pioneer Richard Pinhas". Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2017. Q: Who were your guitar influences?
    Richard Pinhas: [...] As a music composer, it would be Robert Fripp and King Crimson, yet I was more incensed by [Fripp & Eno's] Evening Star and the first one, No Pussyfooting. [...]
  66. ^ "Guitarist Interview with Nick Reinhart of Tera Melos". QRD. August 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  67. ^ Schultz, Scott (9 September 2009). "IO ECHO: GOT ME A GUN FOR CHRISTMAS". L.A. Record. Retrieved 5 March 2017. Q: What is your favorite David Bowie period?
    Leopold Ross: Scary Monsters could rival Master of Puppets as my favorite album ever. What I like about that is that without a blueprint, it’s just really weird music. Robert Fripp is an astonishingly good guitar player. Just doing the wierdest shit. You listen to the guitar in ‘Fashion’ and you’re like, ‘What the fuck is that?’ He played on Scary Monsters, Low and I think Lodger as well. Low is one of my favorite albums ever.
  68. ^ "Five minutes with… Rustie". Fact. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  69. ^ Schamus, James (Fall 1992). "THE SIMPLE LAWS OF FILMMAKING". Filmmaker. Retrieved 12 March 2017. Hal Hartley: I made a list of all the influences I could remember from the time I was 18 to the present. Here it goes: Robert Fripp and King Crimson [...] 
  70. ^ DeRosa, Nicole (12 October 2015). "Q&A with Musician + Record Producer – SEAN BEAVAN – Talks "Death Valley", Working with MARILYN MANSON, TRENT REZNOR and More". Retrieved 5 March 2017. 
  71. ^ "Marriages England and Wales 1984–2005". Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  72. ^ "Robert Fripp's diary for Wednesday 4th April 2007". Robert Fripp's diary. Retrieved 9 November 2008. 
  73. ^ Broad Chalke, A History of a South Wiltshire Village, its Land & People Over 2,000 years. By 'The People of the Village', 1999
  74. ^ "Fripp in Pershore - UK address and phone number -". 
  75. ^ Middlehurst, Lester (13 June 2008). "Toyah Willcox: I've had a facelift... now I want a tummy tuck and my boobs removed because I can't bear them". Daily Mail. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  76. ^ "Robert Fripp Speaking Engagements – articles, interviews and links". 19 February 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  77. ^ "Patricia Fripp & Associates: Experts in Presentation Skills". 4 June 1912. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  78. ^ Fripp, Robert. "Robert Fripp's Diary for Sunday, 11th November 2012". Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  79. ^ Fripp, Robert (2 July 2003). "Robert Fripp's Diary". Barcelona, Spain. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2016. Nowadays I accept that, properly put, I am a fishetarian... 
  80. ^ Fripp (1998, p. 9) : Fripp, Robert (1998). "Discipline Global Mobile: A small, mobile and independent record company". Space Groove (CD booklet). ProjeKct Two. Discipline Global Mobile. pp. 9–10. Space Groove at AllMusic. Retrieved 29 February 2012. Sku DGM9801. Cited by Bruns (2003, p. 3). 

    Bruns, Axel (2003). "Fight for survival: The RIAA's sustained attack on streaming media" (PDF). M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture. 6 (1): 1–6. "RIAA" abbreviates "Recording Industry Association of America". 

  81. ^ Fripp, Robert (1998a). "CD booklet". Absent Lovers: Live in Montreal (Liner notes). King Crimson. Discipline Global Mobile. pp. 3 and 17. Sku DGM9804. Absent Lovers at AllMusic. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  82. ^ Hegarty & Halliwell (2011, "Illustration credits: Chapter 9", p. xii)
  83. ^ Martin (1997, p. 269)
  84. ^ a b Atton (2001, p. 43): Atton, Chris (2001). "'Living in the Past'?: Value discourses in progressive rock fanzines". Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. 20: 29–46. doi:10.1017/S0261143001001295. JSTOR 853693. 
  85. ^ a b Sisario, Ben (14 December 2011). "Sony and Warner are said to sue web music service". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  86. ^ Peoples, Glenn (21 November 2011). "Grooveshark lawsuit reveals details of Universal Music Group's allegations". Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  87. ^ Resnikoff, Paul ("paul") (13 October 2011). "King Crimson can't get their music off of Grooveshark, so they cc'd Digital Music News". Digital Music News. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  88. ^ Fripp, Robert (12 August – 20 October 2011). "Robert Fripp's diaries". Discipline Global Mobile, DMG Live!. Retrieved 30 May 2012. :

    August: "Friday, 12th August 2011", "Saturday, 13th August 2011", "Monday, 15th August 2011", "Tuesday, 16th August 2011", "Wednesday, 17th August 2011";

    September: "Wednesday, 7th September 2011", "Saturday, 10th September 2011", "Monday, 12th September 2011", "Wednesday, 14th September 2011", "Thursday, 15th September 2011", "Wednesday, 21 September 2011", and "Monday, 26th September 2011";

    October: "Thursday, October 13th, 2011" and "Thursday, 20th October 2011".
  89. ^ a b Lawsuit claims Grooveshark workers posted 100,000 pirated songs. Greg Sandoval, CNET, 21 November 2011
  90. ^ Bruford (2009, p. 142): Bruford, Bill (2009). Bill Bruford: The autobiography: Yes, King Crimson, Earthworks, and more. Jawbone Press. ISBN 978-1-906002-23-7. 


  • Hegarty, Paul; Halliwell, Martin (25 August 2011). Beyond and before: Progressive rock since the 1960s. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-4075-4. 
  • Martin, Bill (1997). Listening to the future: The time of progressive rock, 1968–1978. Open Court. p. 376. ISBN 0-8126-9368-X. 
  • Tamm, Eric (2003) [1990]. Robert Fripp: From crimson king to crafty master (Progressive Ears ed.). Faber and Faber (1990). ISBN 0-571-16289-4. Zipped Microsoft Word Document. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011 

Further reading

  • Fripp, Robert (2011). Pozzo, Horacio, ed. Seven Guitar Craft themes: Definitive scores for guitar ensemble. "Original transcriptions by Curt Golden", "Layout scores and tablatures: Ariel Rzezak and Theo Morresi" (First limited ed.). Partitas Music. ISMN 979-0-9016791-7-7. DGM Sku partitas001. 
  • Smith, Sid (2001). In the court of King Crimson. Helter Skelter Publishing. ISBN 1-900924-26-9. 

External links

  • Discipline Global Mobile, DGM (2012). "Welcome to DGM Live". Discipline Global Mobile. DGM is an independent music and merchandise label that was founded by Fripp; DGM features the music of Fripp and King Crimson amid other artists. It also contains tour information, Robert Fripp's diary, and more. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  • Fripp, Patricia (2012). "Robert Fripp speaking engagements". San Francisco, CA: A Speaker for All Reasons. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
This page was last modified 21.06.2018 01:47:59

This article uses material from the article Robert Fripp from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and it is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.