Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein - © 1921

born on 14/3/1879 in Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

died on 18/4/1955 in Princeton, NJ, United States

Albert Einstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein in 1921
Born March 14 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United States
Fields Physics
Doctoral advisor Alfred Kleiner
Other academic advisors Heinrich Friedrich Weber

Albert Einstein ( /ælbrt anstan/; German pronunciation: [albt antan]; 14 March 1879  18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history.[1][2] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[3] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.[4]

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming a citizen in 1940.[5] On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, together with Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the RussellEinstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works.[4][6] His great intelligence and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.[7]


Early life and education

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879.[8] His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current.[8]

The Einsteins were non-observant Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. Later, at the age of eight, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left Germany seven years later.[9] Although it has been thought that Einstein had early speech difficulties, this is disputed by the Albert Einstein Archives, and he excelled at the first school that he attended.[10]

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space".[11] As he grew, Einstein built models and mechanical devices for fun and began to show a talent for mathematics.[8] When Einstein was ten years old Max Talmud (later changed to Max Talmey), a poor Jewish medical student from Poland, was introduced to the Einstein family by his brother, and during weekly visits over the next five years he gave the boy popular books on science, mathematical texts and philosophical writings. These included Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements (which Einstein called the "holy little geometry book").[12][13][fn 1]

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then, a few months later, to Pavia. When the family moved to Pavia, Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December 1894 he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note.[15] It was during his time in Italy in 1895 without formal schooling that he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field."[16][17]

In late summer 1895, at the age of sixteen, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich (later the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule, ETH). He failed to reach the required standard in several subjects, but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics.[18] On the advice of the Principal of the Polytechnic, he attended the Aargau Cantonal School in Aarau, Switzerland, in 1895-96 to complete his secondary schooling. While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. (His sister Maja later married the Wintelers' son, Paul.)[19] In January 1896, with his father's approval, he renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Württemberg to avoid military service.[20] In September 1896 he passed the Swiss Matura with mostly good grades (gaining maximum grade 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale 1-6),[21] and though still only seventeen he enrolled in the four year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Zurich Polytechnic. Marie Winteler moved to Olsberg, Switzerland for a teaching post.

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Mari, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. Over the next few years, Einstein and Mari's friendship developed into romance, and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest. In 1900 Einstein was awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma, but Mari failed the examination with a poor grade in the mathematics component, theory of functions.[22] There have been claims that Mari collaborated with Einstein on his celebrated 1905 papers,[23][24] but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions.[25][26][27][28]

Marriages and children

Main article: Einstein family

In early 1902, Einstein and Mileva Mari ( ) had a daughter they named Lieserl in their correspondence, who was born in Novi Sad where Mari's parents lived.[29] Her full name is not known, and her fate is uncertain after 1903.[30]

Einstein and Mari married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son, Eduard, was born in Zurich in July 1910. In 1914, Einstein moved to Berlin, while his wife remained in Zurich with their sons. Mari and Einstein divorced on 14 February 1919, having lived apart for five years.

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal (née Einstein) on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally. In 1933, they emigrated permanently to the United States. In 1935, Elsa Einstein was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems and died in December 1936.[31]

Patent office

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post, but a former classmate's father helped him secure a job in Bern, at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office, as an assistant examiner.[32] He evaluated patent applications for electromagnetic devices. In 1903, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology".[33]

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.[34]

With a few friends he met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their readings included the works of Henri Poincaré, Ernst Mach, and David Hume, which influenced his scientific and philosophical outlook.

Academic career

In 1901, Einstein had a paper on the capillary forces of a straw published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik.[35] On 30 April 1905, he completed his thesis, with Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics, serving as pro-forma advisor. Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. His dissertation was entitled "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions".[36][37] That same year, which has been called Einstein's annus mirabilis or "miracle year", he published four groundbreaking papers, on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of matter and energy, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world.

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist, and he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, he quit the patent office and the lectureship to take the position of physics docent[38] at the University of Zurich. He became a full professor at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911. In 1914, he returned to Germany after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914-1932)[39] and a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin, with a special clause in his contract that freed him from most teaching obligations. He became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. In 1916, Einstein was appointed president of the German Physical Society (1916-1918).[40][41]

In 1911, he had calculated that, based on his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. That prediction was claimed confirmed by observations made by a British expedition led by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919. International media reports of this made Einstein world famous. On 7 November 1919, the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science  New Theory of the Universe  Newtonian Ideas Overthrown".[42] (Much later, questions were raised whether the measurements had been accurate enough to support Einstein's theory.)

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Because relativity was still considered somewhat controversial, it was officially bestowed for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. He also received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 1925.

Travels abroad

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by the Mayor, followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions. He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University, and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House. On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane in London, where he met several renowned scientific, intellectual and political figures, and delivered a lecture at Kings College.[43]

In 1922, he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour. His travels included Singapore, Ceylon, and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese. His first lecture in Tokyo lasted four hours, after which he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace where thousands came to watch. Einstein later gave his impressions of the Japanese in a letter to his sons:[44] "Of all the people I have met, I like the Japanese most, as they are modest, intelligent, considerate, and have a feel for art."[44]

On his return voyage, he also visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. "He was greeted with great British pomp, as if he were a head of state rather than a theoretical physicist", writes Isaacson. This included a cannon salute upon his arrival at the residence of the British high commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel. During one reception given to him, the building was "stormed by throngs who wanted to hear him". In Einstein's talk to the audience, he expressed his happiness over the event:

Emigration from Germany

In 1933, Einstein decided to emigrate to the United States due to the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler.[45] While visiting American universities in April, 1933, he learned that the new German government had passed a law barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities. A month later, the Nazi book burnings occurred, with Einstein's works being among those burnt, and Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed, "Jewish intellectualism is dead."[46] Einstein also learned that his name was on a list of assassination targets, with a "$5,000 bounty on his head." One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of the German regime with the phrase, "not yet hanged".[46]

Einstein was undertaking his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology when Hitler came to power in Germany. On his return to Europe in March 1933 he resided in Belgium for some months, before temporarily moving to England.[47]

He took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey,[48] an affiliation that lasted until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel). At the institute, he soon developed a close friendship with Gödel. The two would take long walks together discussing their work. His last assistant was Bruria Kaufman, who later became a renowned physicist. During this period, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics, both unsuccessfully.

Other scientists also fled to America. Among them were Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to live in America, often working side by side, Einstein wrote to a friend, "For me the most beautiful thing is to be in contact with a few fine Jewsa few millennia of a civilized past do mean something after all." In another letter he writes, "In my whole life I have never felt so Jewish as now."[46]

World War II and the Manhattan Project

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included emigre physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research. The group's warnings were discounted.[49] Einstein and Szilárd, along with other refugees such as Edward Teller and Eugene Wigner, "regarded it as their responsibility to alert Americans to the possibility that German scientists might win the race to build an atomic bomb, and to warn that Hitler would be more than willing to resort to such a weapon."[44][50] In the summer of 1939, a few months before the beginning of World War II in Europe, Einstein was persuaded to lend his prestige by writing a letter with Szilárd to President Franklin D. Roosevelt to alert him of the possibility. The letter also recommended that the U.S. government pay attention to and become directly involved in uranium research and associated chain reaction research.

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II".[51] President Roosevelt could not take the risk of allowing Hitler to possess atomic bombs first. As a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the U.S. entered the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material, financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project. It became the only country to develop an atomic bomb during World War II.

For Einstein, "war was a disease . . . [and] he called for resistance to war." But in 1933, after Hitler assumed full power in Germany, "he renounced pacifism altogether . . . In fact, he urged the Western powers to prepare themselves against another German onslaught."[52] In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his old friend, Linus Pauling, "I made one great mistake in my life  when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification  the danger that the Germans would make them..."[53]

U.S. citizenship

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at Princeton, he expressed his appreciation of the "meritocracy" in American culture when compared to Europe. According to Isaacson, he recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social barriers, and as result, the individual was "encouraged" to be more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education. Einstein writes:

What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. No one humbles himself before another person or class. . . American youth has the good fortune not to have its outlook troubled by outworn traditions.[46]

As a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP at Princeton who campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans, Einstein corresponded with civil rights activist W. E. B. Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism America's "worst disease".[54] He later stated, "Race prejudice has unfortunately become an American tradition which is uncritically handed down from one generation to the next. The only remedies are enlightenment and education".[55]

After the death of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, in November 1952, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of Israel, a mostly ceremonial post.[56] The offer was presented by Israel's ambassador in Washington, Abba Eban, who explained that the offer "embodies the deepest respect which the Jewish people can repose in any of its sons".[44] However, Einstein declined, and wrote in his response that he was "deeply moved", and "at once saddened and ashamed" that he could not accept it:

All my life I have dealt with objective matters, hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal properly with people and to exercise official function. I am the more distressed over these circumstances because my relationship with the Jewish people became my strongest human tie once I achieved complete clarity about our precarious position among the nations of the world.[44][56][57]


On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948.[58] He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it.[59] Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly."[60] He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end.

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.[61] Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location.[62][63]

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness . . . There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn."[52]

Scientific career

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles.[6][8] In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the BoseEinstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator and others.[64]

1905 - Annus Mirabilis papers

Main article: Annus Mirabilis papers

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space, time, and matter. The four papers are:

Title (translated) Area of focus Received Published Significance
On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light Photoelectric effect 18 March 9 June Resolved an unsolved puzzle by suggesting energy existed in discrete quanta rather than continuous levels. The theory of quanta was either pivotal to, or gave rise to, quantum theory.
On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat Brownian motion 11 May 18 July Empirical evidence for the atom, substantial support to the novel area of statistical physics.
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies Special relativity 30 June 26 Sept Reconciled Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. Hypothesized the speed of light as being independent of the frame of reference and an "upper limit" on velocity and information transmission in non-esoteric situations, discredited the concept of an "luminiferous ether", and the significance of frames of reference in physics.
Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? Matterenergy equivalence 27 Sept 21 Nov Equivalence of matter and energy, E = mc2 (and by implication, the ability of gravityand matter generallyto "bend" light), the existence of "rest energy", and the basis of nuclear energy (the conversion of matter to energy by humans and in the cosmos).

Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics

Main article: Statistical mechanics

Albert Einstein's first paper[65] submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 titled Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen, which was translated as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena". Two papers he published in 1902-1903 (thermodynamics) attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the foundation for the 1905 paper on Brownian motion. These published calculations (1905) showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist. His research in 1903 and 1904 was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena.[65]

General principles postulated by Einstein

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are the principle of equivalence and the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum number.

Theory of relativity and E = mc2

Main article: History of special relativity

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. It reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity.

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether  one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time  was superfluous.[66]

In his paper on massenergy equivalence Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations.[67] Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years, but was accepted by leading physicists, starting with Max Planck.[68][69]

Photons and energy quanta

Main article: Photon

In a 1905 paper,[70] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in 1919, with Robert Millikan's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.[71]

Quantized atomic vibrations

Main article: Einstein solid

In 1907 Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently  a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be different, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics. Peter Debye refined this model.[72]

Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables

Main article: Old quantum theory

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. Einstein noted in 1911 that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant. Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. The law that the action variable is quantized was a basic principle of the quantum theory as it was known between 1900 and 1925.

Waveparticle duality

Main article: Waveparticle duality

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a privatdozent at the University of Bern.[73] In "über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung" ("The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"), on the quantization of light, and in an earlier 1909 paper, Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta must have well-defined momenta and act in some respects as independent, point-like particles. This paper introduced the photon concept (although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of waveparticle duality in quantum mechanics.

Theory of critical opalescence

Main article: Critical opalescence

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density. At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein relates this to Raleigh scattering, which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.[74] Einstein quantitatively derived critical opalescence from a treatment of density fluctuations, and demonstrated how both the effect and Rayleigh scattering originate from the atomistic constitution of matter.

Zero-point energy

Main article: Zero-point energy

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He modified Planck's hypothesis by stating that the lowest energy state of an oscillator is equal to 12hf, to half the energy spacing between levels. This argument, which was made in 1913 in collaboration with Otto Stern, was based on the thermodynamics of a diatomic molecule which can split apart into two free atoms.

General relativity and the Equivalence Principle

Main article: History of general relativity
See also: Principle of equivalence, Theory of relativity, and Einstein field equations

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses. General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes, regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape.

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion (even accelerated ones) should appear more satisfactory.[75] So in 1908 he published an article on acceleration under special relativity. In that article, he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a freefalling observer the rules of special relativity must apply. This argument is called the Equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomenon of gravitational time dilation. In 1911, Einstein published another article expanding on the 1907 article, in which additional effects such as the deflection of light by massive bodies were predicted.

Hole argument and Entwurf theory

Main article: Hole argument

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.

In June, 1913 the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. Simultaneously less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, after more than two years of intensive work Einstein abandoned the theory in November, 1915 after realizing that the hole argument was mistaken.[76]


Main article: Cosmology

In 1917, Einstein applied the General theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He wanted the universe to be eternal and unchanging, but this type of universe is not consistent with relativity. To fix this, Einstein modified the general theory by introducing a new notion, the cosmological constant. With a positive cosmological constant, the universe could be an eternal static sphere.[77]

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame dragging by gravitomagnetic fields, but he knew that Mach's idea would not work if space goes on forever. In a closed universe, he believed that Mach's principle would hold. Mach's principle has generated much controversy over the years.

Modern quantum theory

Main article: Schrödinger equation

In 1917, at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission, the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.[78] This article showed that the statistics of absorption and emission of light would only be consistent with Planck's distribution law if the emission of light into a mode with n photons would be enhanced statistically compared to the emission of light into an empty mode. This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie's work, and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves, which Einstein suggested was the HamiltonJacobi equation of mechanics. This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of 1926.

BoseEinstein statistics

Main article: BoseEinstein condensation

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles. Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the BoseEinstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.[79] It was not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced experimentally by Eric Allin Cornell and Carl Wieman using ultra-cooling equipment built at the NISTJILA laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder.[80] BoseEinstein statistics are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of bosons. Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University.[64]

Energy momentum pseudotensor

Main article: Stress-energy-momentum pseudotensor

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance, but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry. The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's presecriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason.

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field. This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz, and others, and has become standard.

The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in 1917 by Erwin Schrödinger and others.

Unified field theory

Main article: Classical unified field theories

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In 1950, he described his "unified field theory" in a Scientific American article entitled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".[81] Although he continued to be lauded for his work, Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research, and his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces, which were not well understood until many years after his death. Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory, where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting.


Main article: Wormhole

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations, in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the Constitution of the Elementary Particles?". These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches.

If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.

EinsteinCartan theory

Main article: EinsteinCartan theory

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the 1920s.

Equations of motion

Main article: EinsteinInfeldHoffmann equations

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law   the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations.

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law. So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself.

This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects.

Other investigations

Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations

Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force, superconductivity, gravitational waves, and other research. Please see the main article for details.

Collaboration with other scientists

In addition to long time collaborators Leopold Infeld, Nathan Rosen, Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.

Einsteinde Haas experiment

Main article: Einsteinde Haas effect

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization.

Schrödinger gas model

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a BoseEinstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it.

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation.[82]

Einstein refrigerator

Main article: Einstein refrigerator

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.[83] On 11 November 1930, U.S. Patent 1,781,541  was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for the refrigerator. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, as the most promising of their patents were quickly bought up by the Swedish company Electrolux to protect its refrigeration technology from competition.[84]

Bohr versus Einstein

Main article: BohrEinstein debates
The BohrEinstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science.[85][86][87]

EinsteinPodolskyRosen paradox

Main article: EPR paradox

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted, along with his collaborators, that by performing different measurements on the distant particle, either of position or momentum, different properties of the entangled partner could be discovered without disturbing it in any way.

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The principle he proposed is that if it is possible to determine what the answer to a position or momentum measurement would be, without in any way disturbing the particle, then the particle actually has values of position or momentum.

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of 1982 confirmed Bell's theorem, which had been promulgated in 1964.

Political and religious views

Main article: Albert Einstein's political views

Albert Einstein's political views emerged publicly in the middle of the 20th century due to his fame and reputation for genius. Einstein offered to and was called on to give judgments and opinions on matters often unrelated to theoretical physics or mathematics (see main article).

Einstein's views about religious belief have been collected from interviews and original writings. These views covered Judaism, theological determinism, agnosticism, and humanism. He also wrote much about ethical culture, opting for Spinoza's god over belief in a personal god.

Non-scientific legacy

While travelling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death (she died in 1986[88]). Barbara Wolff, of The Hebrew University's Albert Einstein Archives, told the BBC that there are about 3,500 pages of private correspondence written between 1912 and 1955.[89]

Einstein bequeathed the royalties from use of his image to The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Corbis, successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university.[90]

In popular culture

Main article: Albert Einstein in popular culture

In the period before World War II, Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory". He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein."[91]

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music.[92] He is a favorite model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors; his expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and exaggerated. TIME magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true".[93]

Awards and honors

Main article: Einstein's awards and honors

Einstein merited awards and honors, including the Nobel Prize in Physics. Please see the main article.


The following publications by Albert Einstein are referenced in this article. A more complete list of his publications may be found at List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein.
  • Einstein, Albert (1901), "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity)", Annalen der Physik 4 (3): 513, DOI:10.1002/andp.19013090306
  • Einstein, Albert (1905a), "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt (On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light)", Annalen der Physik 17 (6): 132148, DOI:10.1002/andp.19053220607 This annus mirabilis paper on the photoelectric effect was received by Annalen der Physik 18 March.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905b), A new determination of molecular dimensions. This PhD thesis was completed 30 April and submitted 20 July.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905c), "On the Motion  Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat  of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", Annalen der Physik 17 (8): 549560, DOI:10.1002/andp.19053220806. This annus mirabilis paper on Brownian motion was received 11 May.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905d), "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", Annalen der Physik 17 (10): 891921, DOI:10.1002/andp.19053221004. This annus mirabilis paper on special relativity was received 30 June.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905e), "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", Annalen der Physik 18 (13): 639641, DOI:10.1002/andp.19053231314. This annus mirabilis paper on mass-energy equivalence was received 27 September.
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844847
  • Einstein, Albert (1917a), "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften
  • Einstein, Albert (1917b), "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 18: 121128
  • Einstein, Albert (11 July 1923), "Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity", Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company
  • Einstein, Albert (1924), "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases)", Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse: 261267. First of a series of papers on this topic.
  • Einstein, Albert (1926), "Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes", Die Naturwissenschaften 14 (11): 223224, DOI:10.1007/BF01510300. On Baer's law and meanders in the courses of rivers.
  • Einstein, Albert; Boris Podolsky & Nathan Rosen (15 May 1935), "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", Physical Review 47 (10): 777780, DOI:10.1103/PhysRev.47.777
  • Einstein, Albert (1940), "On Science and Religion", Nature 146 (3706): 605, ISBN 0707304539, DOI:10.1038/146605a0
  • Einstein, Albert et al. (4 December 1948), "To the editors", New York Times, ISBN 0735403597
  • Einstein, Albert (May 1949), "Why Socialism?", Monthly Review
  • Einstein, Albert (1950), "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation", Scientific American CLXXXII (4): 1317
  • Einstein, Albert (1954), Ideas and Opinions, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-517-00393-7
  • Einstein, Albert (1969), Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916-1955, Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, ISBN 388682005X
  • Einstein, Albert (1979), Autobiographical Notes (Centennial ed.), Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-875-48352-6. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 4851.
  • Collected Papers: Stachel, John, Martin J. Klein, a. J. Kox, Michel Janssen, R. Schulmann, Diana Komos Buchwald and others (Eds.) (1987-2006), The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 110, Princeton University Press Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page

See also

  • The Einstein Theory of Relativity (educational film about the theory of relativity)
  • German inventors and discoverers
  • Heinrich Burkhardt
  • Hermann Einstein
  • Historical Museum of Bern (Einstein museum)
  • History of gravitational theory
  • Introduction to special relativity
  • List of coupled cousins
  • Relativity priority dispute
  • Sticky bead argument
  • Summation convention
  • List of Jewish Nobel laureates


  1. "Albert's intellectual growth was strongly fostered at home. His mother, a talented pianist, ensured the children's musical education. His father regularly read Schiller and Heine aloud to the family. Uncle Jakob challenged Albert with mathematical problems, which he solved with 'a deep feeling of happiness'." More significant were the weekly visits of Max Talmud from 1889 through 1894 during which time he introduced the boy to popular scientific texts that brought to an end a short-lived religious phase, convincing him that 'a lot in the Bible stories could not be true'. A textbook of plane geometry that he quickly worked through led on to an avid self-study of mathematics, several years ahead of the school curriculum. [14]


  1. Zahar, Élie (2001), Poincaré's Philosophy. From Conventionalism to Phenomenology, Carus Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8126-9435-X, Chapter 2, p. 41.
  2. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved on 6 March 2007.
  3. 4.0 4.1 "Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe." (page 2)
  4. Hans-Josef, Küpper (2000). Various things about Albert Einstein. Retrieved on 18 July 2009.
  5. 6.0 6.1 Paul Arthur Schilpp, editor (1951), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Volume II, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition)His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  6. WordNet for Einstein.
  7. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Albert Einstein  Biography. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 7 March 2007.
  8. John J. Stachel (2002), Einstein from "B" to "Z", Springer, ISBN 978081764-1436
  9. Einstein's Alleged Handicaps: The Legend of the Dull-Witted Child Who Grew Up to Be a Genius [1]
  10. Schilpp (Ed.), P. A. (1979), Albert Einstein  Autobiographical Notes, Open Court Publishing Company
  11. M. Talmey, The Relativity Theory Simplified and the Formative Period of its Inventor. Falcon Press, 1932, pp. 161164.
  12. Dudley Herschbach, "Einstein as a Student", Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, pp. 45, web: HarvardChem-Einstein-PDF
  13. Einstein as a Student, pp. 35.
  14. A. Fölsing, Albert Einstein, 1997, pp. 30-31.
  15. Albert Einstein Collected Papers, vol. 1 (1987), doc. 5.
  16. Mehra, Jagdish (2001), "Albert Einstein's first paper", The Golden Age of Physics, World Scientific, ISBN 9810249853
  17. A. Fölsing, Albert Einstein, 1997, pp. 36-37.
  18. Highfield & Carter (1993, pp. 21,31,5657)
  19. A. Fölsing, Albert Einstein, 1997, p. 40.
  20. Collected Papers, vol. 1, docs. 21-27.
  21. Albert Einstein Collected Papers, vol. 1, 1987, doc. 67.
  22. Troemel-Ploetz, D., "Mileva Einstein-Mari: The Woman Who Did Einstein's Mathematics", Women's Studies Int. Forum, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 415432, 1990.
  23. Walker, Evan Harris (February 1989), Did Einstein Espouse his Spouse's Ideas?, Physics Today
  24. Pais, A., Einstein Lived Here, Oxford University Press, 1994, pp. 129.
  25. Holton, G., Einstein, History, and Other Passions, Harvard University Press, 1996, pp. 177193.
  26. Stachel, J., Einstein from B to Z, Birkhäuser, 2002, pp. 2638; 3955.
  27. Martinez, A. A., Handling evidence in history: the case of Einsteins Wife. School Science Review, 86 (316), March 2005, pp. 4956. [2]
  28. This conclusion is from Einstein's correspondence with Mari. Lieserl is first mentioned in a letter from Einstein to Mari (who was staying with her family in or near Novi Sad at the time of Lieserl's birth) dated 4 February 1902 (Collected papers Vol. 1, document 134).
  29. Albrecht Fölsing (1998). Albert Einstein: A Biography. Penguin Group. ISBN 0140237194; see section I, II,
  30. Highfield & Carter 1993, p. 216
  31. Now the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property. See also their FAQ about Einstein and the Institute
  32. Peter Galison, "Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time" Critical Inquiry 26, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 355389.
  33. Gallison, Question of Time.
  34. Galison, Peter (2003), Einstein's Clocks, Poincaré's Maps: Empires of Time, New York: W.W. Norton, ISBN 0393020010
  35. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1905b|Einstein 1905b]])
  36. Eine Neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen. ETH Zürich (1905). Retrieved on 26 September 2011.
  37. Universität Zürich: Geschichte. (2 December 2010). Retrieved on 3 April 2011.
  38. Kant, Horst. "Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin". in Renn, Jürgen. "Albert Einstein  Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein." Ed. Renn, Jürgen. Wiley-VCH. 2005. pp. 166169. ISBN 3527405747
  39. Calaprice, Alice & Trevor Lipscombe (2005), Albert Einstein: a biography, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-33080-8, Timeline, p. xix
  40. Heilbron, 2000, p. 84.
  41. Andrzej, Stasiak (2003), "Myths in science", EMBO reports 4 (3): 236, DOI:10.1038/sj.embor.embor779
  42. Hoffman and Dukas (1972), pp. 145148; Fölsing (1997), pp. 499508.
  43. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 Isaacson, Walter. Einstein: His Life and Universe, Simon & Schuster (2007)
  44. In Brief. Institute for Advanced Study. Retrieved on 4 March 2010.
  45. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 Isaacson, Walter. Einstein: His Life and Universe, Simon & Schuster (2007) pp. 407410
  46. Hoffman, B. (1972), pp. 165171; Fölsing, A. (1997), pp. 666677.
  47. In Brief (Albert Einstein). The Center for History of Physics. American Institute of Physics (2005). Retrieved on 2 November 2010.
  48. Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose, Obama could kill fossil fuels overnight with a nuclear dash for thorium, The Daily Telegraph, 29 August 2010.
  49. Gosling, F.G. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb, U.S. Department of Energy, History Division (January, 1999) p. vii
  50. Diehl, Sarah J.; Moltz, James Clay. Nuclear Weapons and Nonproliferation: a Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO (2008) p. 218
  51. 52.0 52.1 Stern, Fritz. Essay, "Einstein's Germany", E = Einstein: His Life, His Thought, and His Influence on Our Culture, Sterling Publishing (2006) pp. 97118
  52. Einstein: The Life and Times by Ronald Clark. page 752
  53. Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006) Einstein on Race and Racism Rutgers University Press, 2006.
  54. Calaprice, Alice (2005) The new quotable Einstein. pp.148149 Princeton University Press, 2005. See also Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents
  55. 56.0 56.1 ISRAEL: Einstein Declines, Time magazine, 1 December 1952. URL accessed on 31 March 2010.
  56. Einstein in Princeton / Scientist, Humanitarian, Cultural Icon. Historical Society of Princeton. Retrieved on 31 March 2010.
  57. 14 June 2002, The Case of the Scientist with a Pulsating Mass
  58. Albert Einstein Archives (April 1955), "Draft of projected Telecast Israel Independence Day, April 1955 (last statement ever written)", Einstein Archives Online
  59. Cohen, J.R.; Graver, L.M. (1995), "The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm of Albert Einstein", Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 170 (5): 4558
  60. The Long, Strange Journey of Einstein's Brain, National Public Radio
  61. O'Connor, J.J. & E.F. Robertson (1997), "Albert Einstein", The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews
  62. 19 April 1955, Dr. Albert Einstein Dies in Sleep at 76. World Mourns Loss of Great Scientist
  63. 64.0 64.1 "Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz". Instituut-Lorentz. 2005. Retrieved on 21 November 2005.
  64. 65.0 65.1 Hans-Josef Kuepper. List of Scientific Publications of Albert Einstein. Retrieved on 3 April 2011.
  65. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1905d|Einstein 1905d]])
  66. Stachel, John J. (December 2001), Einstein from "B" to "Z", Center for Einstein Studies, Boston University: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC, ISBN 978-0-8176-4143-6
  67. For a discussion of the reception of relativity theory around the world, and the different controversies it encountered, see the articles in Thomas F. Glick, ed., The Comparative Reception of Relativity (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987), ISBN 9027724989.
  68. Pais, Abraham (1982), Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019853907X
  69. Einstein, Albert (1905), "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt", Annalen der Physik 17 (6): 132148, DOI:10.1002/andp.19053220607
  70. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1905a|Einstein 1905a]]).
  71. Celebrating Einstein "Solid Cold". U.S. DOE., Office of Scientific and Technical Information, 2011.
  72. Pais, Abraham (1982), Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019853907X
  73. Levenson, Thomas. "Einstein's Big Idea". Public Broadcasting Service. 2005. Retrieved on 25 February 2006.
  74. Albert Einstein, Nobel lecture in 1921
  75. van Dongen, Jeroen (2010) Einstein's Unification Cambridge University Press, p.23.
  76. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1917a|Einstein 1917a]])
  77. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1917b|Einstein 1917b]])
  78. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1924|Einstein 1924]])
  79. 9 October 2001, Cornell and Wieman Share 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics
  80. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1950|Einstein 1950]])
  81. Moore, Walter (1989), Schrödinger: Life and Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43767-9
  82. Goettling, Gary. Einstein's refrigerator Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine. 1998. Retrieved on 21 November 2005. Leó Szilárd, a Hungarian physicist who later worked on the Manhattan Project, is credited with the discovery of the chain reaction
  83. In September 2008 it was reported that Malcolm McCulloch of Oxford University was heading a three-year project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity, and that his team had completed a prototype Einstein refrigerator. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled.Alok, Jha (21 September 2008), Einstein fridge design can help global cooling, UK
  84. Bohr N. Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics. The Value of Knowledge: A Miniature Library of Philosophy. Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved on 30 August 2010. From Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (1949), publ. Cambridge University Press, 1949. Niels Bohr's report of conversations with Einstein.
  85. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1969|Einstein 1969]]). A reprint of this book was published by Edition Erbrich in 1982, ISBN 388682005X
  86. ([[#CITEREFEinstein1935|Einstein 1935]])
  87. Obituary. New York Times (12 July 1986). Retrieved on 3 April 2011.
  88. 11 July 2006, "Letters Reveal Einstein Love Life", BBC News
  89. Einstein, Corbis Rights Representation
  90. The New Yorker April 1939 pg 69 Disguise
  91. [3] Einstein's Dream for orchestra by Cindy McTee
  92. Golden, Frederic (3 January 2000), "Person of the Century: Albert Einstein", Time

Further reading

  • Fölsing, Albrecht (1997): Albert Einstein: A Biography. New York: Penguin Viking. (Translated and abridged from the German by Ewald Osers.)
  • (1993) The Private Lives of Albert Einstein, London: Faber and Faber.
  • Hoffmann, Banesh, with the collaboration of Helen Dukas (1972): Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon Ltd.
  • Isaacson, Walter (2007): Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York. ISBN 9780743264730
  • Moring, Gary (2004): The complete idiot's guide to understanding Einstein ( 1st ed. 2000). Indianapolis IN: Alpha books (Macmillan USA). ISBN 002863-1803
  • Pais, Abraham (1982): Subtle is the Lord: The science and the life of Albert Einstein. Oxford University Press. The definitive biography to date.
  • Pais, Abraham (1994): Einstein Lived Here. Oxford University Press.
  • Parker, Barry (2000): Einstein's Brainchild. Prometheus Books. A review of Einstein's career and accomplishments, written for the lay public.
  • Schweber, Sylvan S. (2008): Einstein and Oppenheimer: The Meaning of Genius. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674028289.
  • Oppenheimer, J.R. (1971): "On Albert Einstein," p. 812 in Science and synthesis: an international colloquium organized by Unesco on the tenth anniversary of the death of Albert Einstein and Teilhard de Chardin, Springer-Verlag, 1971, 208 pp. (Lecture delivered at the UNESCO House in Paris on 13 December 1965.) Also published in The New York Review of Books, 17 March 1966, On Albert Einstein by Robert Oppenheimer

External links

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Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
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News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Works by Albert Einstein (public domain in Canada)
  • 1997, The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland
  • Why Socialism? by Albert Einstein, Monthly Review, May 1949
  • Einstein's Personal Correspondence: Religion, Politics, The Holocaust, and Philosophy Shapell Manuscript Foundation
  • FBI file on Albert Einstein
  • Biography:Albert Einstein
  • The Einstein You Never Knew  slideshow by Life magazine
  • Albert Einstein  videos
  • Science Odyssey People And Discoveries
  • MIT OpenCourseWare STS.042J/8.225J: Einstein, Oppenheimer, Feynman: Physics in the 20th century  free study course that explores the changing roles of physics and physicists during the 20th century

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