born on 10/2/1890 in Moscow, Russian Federation
died on 30/5/1960 in Peredelkino, Central Federal District, Russian Federation
|Born||February 10 1890
Moscow, Russian Empire
|Died||30 May 1960 (aged 70)
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russian: ) (10 February [O.S. 29 January] 1890 –30 May 1960) was a Russian language poet, novelist, and translator of Goethe and Shakespeare. In his native Russia, Pasternak's anthology My Sister Life, is one of the most influential collections ever published in the Russian language. Outside his homeland, Pasternak is best known for authoring Doctor Zhivago, a novel set during the last years of the House of Romanov and the earliest days of the Soviet Union. Banned in the USSR, Doctor Zhivago was smuggled to the West and published in 1957. Pasternak received the Nobel Prize for Literature the following year, an event which both humiliated and enraged the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Pasternak was born in Moscow on 10 February, (Gregorian), 1890 (Julian 29 January) into a wealthy Russian-Jewish family which had been receieved into the Russian Orthodox Church. His father was the famous artist, Leonid Pasternak, professor at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, and his mother was Rosa (Raitza) Kaufman, a concert pianist. Shortly before his birth, Pasternak's parents had abandoned the Orthodox Church for Tolstoyan Christianity. Leo Tolstoy was not only a close family friend. Pasternak later recalled, "my father illustrated his books, went to see him, revered him, and ...the whole house was imbued with his spirit."In a 1956 essay, Pasternak recalled,
"It was from the... kitchen that my father's remarkable illustrations to Tolstoy's Resurrection were dispatched. After its final revision, the novel was serialized in the journal Niva by the Petersburg publisher Fyodor Marx. The work was feverish. I remember how pressed for time father was. The issues of the journal came out regularly without delay. One had to be in time for each issue. Tolstoy kept back the proofs, revising them again and again. There was the risk that the illustrations would be at variance with the corrections subsequently introduced into it. But my father's sketches came from the same source whence the author obtained his observations, the courtroom, the transit prison, the country, the railway. It was the reservoir of living details, the identical realistic presentation of ideas, that saved him from the danger of digressing from the spirit of the original. In view of the urgency of the matter, special precautions were taken to prevent any delay in the sending of the illustrations. The services of the conductors of the express trains at the NIkolayevsky railway were enlisted. My childish imagination was struck by the sight of a train conductor in his formal railway uniform, standing waiting at the door of the kitchen as if he were standing on a railway platform at the door of a compartment that was just about to leave the station. Joiner's glue was boiling on the stove. The illustrations were hurriedly wiped dry, fixed, glued on pieces of cardboard, rolled up, tied up. The parcels, once ready, were sealed up with sealing wax and handed to the conductor."
Leonid Pasternak was ultimately awarded a medal at the Paris World Fair in 1900 for his illustrations of Tolstoy's novels.
Pasternak was brought up in a highly cosmopolitan and intellectual atmosphere: family friends and regular visitors to his childhood home included pianist and composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, composer and mystic Alexander Scriabin, existentialist Lev Shestov, and the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke. Pasternak aspired first to be a composer, turned next to philosophy and then eventually to writing as his vocation.
Inspired by his neighbour Alexander Scriabin, Pasternak resolved to become a composer and entered the Moscow Conservatory. In 1910 he abruptly left the conservatory for the University of Marburg, where he studied under Neo-Kantian philosophers Hermann Cohen and Nicolai Hartmann. Although invited to become a scholar, he decided against making philosophy a profession and returned to Moscow in 1914. His first poetry collection, influenced by Alexander Blok and the Russian Futurists, was published later the same year.
Pasternak's early verse cleverly dissimulates his preoccupation with Kant's ideas. Its fabric includes striking alliterations, wild rhythmic combinations, day-to-day vocabulary, and hidden allusions to his favourite poets such as Rilke, Lermontov and German Romantic poets.
During World War I, he taught and worked at a chemical factory in Vsevolodovo-Vilve near Perm, which undoubtedly provided him with material for Dr. Zhivago many years later. Unlike many of his relatives and friends, Pasternak did not leave Russia after the revolution. Instead, he was fascinated with the new ideas and possibilities that revolution brought to life.
Several of Pasternak's relations moved to Lithuania after the October Revolution and there are 4 direct descendants left there. Several cousins are buried in Rokantiks cemetery, in Vilnius.
My Sister Life
Pasternak spent the summer of 1917 living in the steppe country near Saratov, where he fell in love. This passion resulted in the collection My Sister Life, which he wrote over a period of three months, but was too embarrassed to publish for four years because of its novel style. When it finally was published in 1921, the book revolutionised Russian poetry. It made Pasternak the model for younger poets, and decisively changed the poetry of Osip Mandelshtam, Marina Tsvetayeva and others.
Following My Sister Life, Pasternak produced some hermetic pieces of uneven quality, including his masterpiece, the lyric cycle Rupture (1921). Authors such as Vladimir Mayakovsky, Andrey Bely, Anna Akhmatova and Vladimir Nabokov applauded Pasternak's poems as works of pure, unbridled inspiration. In the late 1920s, he also participated in the much celebrated tripartite correspondence with Rilke and Tsvetayeva.
After the ascension of Joseph Stalin in 1929, Pasternak increasingly felt that his colourful style was at odds with the dictator's demand for Socialist Realism. He attempted to make his poetry more comprehensible to the censors by reworking his earlier pieces and starting two lengthy poems on the Revolution. He also turned to prose and wrote several autobiographical stories, notably The Childhood of Luvers and Safe Conduct.
By 1932, Pasternak had strikingly reshaped his style to make it acceptable to the Soviet public and printed the new collection of poems aptly titled The Second Birth. Although its Caucasian pieces were as brilliant as the earlier efforts, the book alienated the core of Pasternak's refined audience abroad, which was largely composed of anti-communist White emigres. He simplified his style and language even further for his next collection of verse, Early Trains (1943), which prompted his former patron, Vladimir Nabokov, to mock Pasternak as a "weeping Bolshevik" and "Emily Dickinson in trousers."
Reluctant to conform to Socialist Realism, Pasternak turned to translation. He soon produced acclaimed translations of Sandor Petfi, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Faust), Rilke (Requiem für eine Freundin), Paul Verlaine, Taras Shevchenko, Nikoloz Baratashvili, and Rabindranath Tagore.
Philosophy of translating verseIn a 1942 letter, Pasternak declared,
"I am completely opposed to contemporary ideas about translation. The work of Lozinski, Radlova, Marshak, and Chukovski is alien to me, and seems artificial, soulless, and lacking in depth. I share the nineteenth century view of translation as a literary excericise demanding insight of a higher kind than that provided by a merely philiogical approach..."Olga Ivinskaya, with whom Pasternak carried on a fourteen-year extramarital relationship, was instructed further on his views on translating poetry. While she was translating Tagore into the Russian language, Pasternak advised her,
"1) Bring out the theme of the poem, its subject matter, as clearly as possible; 2) tighten up the fluid, non-European form by rhyming internally, not at the end of the lines; 3) use loose, irregular meters, mostly ternary ones. You may allow yourself to use assonances."Later, while she was collaborating with him on a translation of Vitslav Nezval, Pasternak told Ivinskaya,
"Use the literal translation only for the meaning, but do not borrow words as they stand from it: they are absurd and not always comprehensible. Don't translated everything, only what you can manage, and by this means try to make the translation more precise than the original -- an absolute necessity in the case of such a confused, slipshod piece of work."
ShakespearePasternak's translations of William Shakespeare (Hamlet, Macbeth, King Lear) remain deeply popular with Russian audiences because of their colloquial, modernised dialogues. Paternak's critics, however, accused him of "pasternakizing" the English playwright. In a 1956 essay, Pasternak wrote,
"Translating Shakespeare is a task which takes time and effort. Once it is undertaken, it is best to divide it into sections long enough for the work to not get stale and to complete one section each day. In thus daily progressing through the text, the translator finds himself reliving the circumstances of the author. Day by day, he reproduces his actions and he is drawn into some of his secrets, not in theory, but practically, by experience."
GoethePasternak's translation of the first part of Goethe's Faust led him to be attacked in the August 1950 edition of Novy Mir. The attack read in part,
"... the translator clearly distorts Goethe's ideas... in order to defend the reactionary theory of 'pure art' ... he introduces an aesthetic and individualist flavor into the text... attributes a reactionary idea to Goethe... distorts the social and philosophical meaning..."In response, Pasternak wrote to the exiled daughter of Marina Tsvetayeva,
"There has been much concern over an article in Novy Mir denouncing my Faust on the grounds that the gods, angels, witches, spirits, the madness of poor Gretchen, and everything 'irrational' has been rendered much too well, while Goethe's 'progressive' ideas (what are they?) have been glossed over. But I have a contract to do the second part as well! I don't know how it will all end. Fortunately, it seems that the article won't have any practical effect."
The Stalin Epigram
During the later 1930s, Pasternak became increasingly disillusioned with Communism. He remained a close friend of Anna Akhmatova, as well as Osip Mandelstam. Mandelstam publicly recited the Stalin Epigram to Pasternak soon after its composition in late April 1934. After listening, Pasternak told Mandelstam, "I didn't hear this, you didn't recite it to me, because, you know, very strange and terrible things are happening now: they've begun to pick people up. I'm afraid the walls have ears and perhaps even these benches on the boulevard here may be able to listen and tell tales. So let's make out that I heard nothing."
On the night of May 14, 1934, Mandelstam was arrested at his home based on a warrant signed by NKVD boss Genrikh Yagoda. Devastated, Pasternak went immediately to the offices of Izvestia and begged Nikolai Bukharin to intercede on Mandelstam's behalf.According to Olga Ivinskaya,
"B[oris] L[eonidovich] was terribly upset by Mandelstam's arrest, not only out of concern for Mandelstam's fate, but also because he was anxious that it might be thought that he, B[oris] L[eonidovich] had talked about the poem to anyone else. He raced frantically all over town, telling everybody that he was not to blame and denying responsibility for Mandelstam's disappearance, which for some reason he thought might be laid at his door.Soon after his meeting with Bukharin, the telephone rang in Pasternak's Moscow apartment. A voice from The Kremlin said, "Comrade Stalin wishes to speak with you." According to Ivinskaya,
B[oris L[eonidovich] was struck dumb. He was totally unprepared for such a conversation. But then he heard his voice, the voice of Stalin, coming over the line. The Leader addressed him in a rather bluff uncouth fashion, using the familiar thou form: "Tell me, what are they saying in your literary circles about the arrest of Mandelstam?" As was usual with B]oris] L[eonidovich] instead of answering straightaway to the point, he started off on a rambling disinquision: "You know, they are not saying anything, because... What literary circles do we have now? There are no literary circles, nobody says anything, because they don't know what to say, they're afraid..." and so on. There was a lengthy pause on the other end of the line and then Stalin said: "Very well. But now tell me your own opinion of Mandelstam. What is your view of him as a poet?" At this, B[oris] L[eoidovich], in the eager fumbling manner characteristic of him, launched into an explanation of how he and Mandelstam were poets of completely different schools: "Of course, he is a very great poet, but he has no points of contact at all with us -- we are breaking up the old verse forms, whereas he belongs to the academic school," and he went on for quite a time in this vein. Stalin gave him no encouragement whatsoever, not interjecting , or uttering a sound of any kind. At last B[oris] L[eonidovich] came to a halt. Stalin then said, in a mocking tone of voice: "I see, you just aren't able to stick up for a comrade," and put down the receiver.Years later, Pasternak recalled that he was horrified at how the conversation had ended. He repeatedly telephoned the Kremlin's number, begging to be reconnected to Stalin. Instead, Pasternak was told, "Comrade Stalin is busy." According to Ivinskaya,
"In a state of extreme agitation, he frantically began to walk round the communal apartment, where he lived on Volkhonka Street, saying to one neighbor after another: 'I must write to him and tell him: injustices are being committed in your name. You didn't let me get to the end of what I wanted to say - that all the bad things happening are linked with your name, and you must look into it all.' He actually did send a letter of this sort."
- Main article: Great Purge
"In 1937, at the time of the trial of Yakir, Tukhachevsky and others, the writers were asked to put their signature to a statement endorsing the death sentence. They came to try and get mine as well. I refused to give it. This caused a tremendous hue and cry. The chairman of the Union of Writers at that time was a certain Stavski, a great scoundrel. He was scared stiff that he would be accused of not watching things more closely, the Union of Writers would be called a hotbed of opportunism, and he would have to pay the price. They tried to put pressure on me, but I wouldn't give in. Then the whole leadership of the Union of Writers came out to Peredelkino -- not to my dacha but to another one, where they summoned me. Stavski began to shout at me and started using threats. I said that if he wouldn't talk to me calmly, I wasn't obliged to listen to him, and I went home. At home there was a painful scene. At that time, Zinaida Nikolayevna was pregnant with Lionia, and was soon going to give birth. She threw herself at my feet, begging me not to destroy her and the child. But there was no arguing with me. It later turned out that an agent was sitting in the bushes under our window, and he heard every word we said.... We expected I would be arrested that night. But, just imagine, I went to bed and at once I fell into a blissful sleep. Not for a long time had I slept so well and peacefully. This always happens after I have taken some irrevocable step. My close friends urged me to write to Stalin -- as though we were regular correspondents and exchenged cards at holiday seasons! But I actually did send him a letter. I wrote that I had grown up in a family with very strong Tolstoyan convictions, which I had imbibed with my mother's milk, and that my life was at his disposal, but that I could not consider I had the right to be a judge in matters of life and death where others were concerned. To this very day I cannot understand why I was not arrested there and then...."
Joseph Stalin is said to have crossed his name off an execution list during the 1930s Purges. According to persistant rumors, Stalin declared, "Do not touch this cloud dweller...."According to Stalin's biographer, Simon Sebag Montefiore,
"He recognized that Mandelstam, Pasternak, and Bulgakov were geniuses, but their work was suppressed. Yet he could tolerate whimsical maestros: Bulgakov and Pasternak were never arrested. But woe betide anyone, genius or hack, who insulted the person or policy of Stalin -- for the two were synonymous."
Several years before the start of the Second World War, Pasternak and his wife settled in Peredelkino, a village for writers several miles from Moscow. He was filled with a love of life that gave his poetry a hopeful tone. This is reflected in the name of his autobiographical hero Zhivago, derived from the Russian word for live. The character of Zhivago's mistress, Lara Antipova, has long been rumored to have been modeled on Pasternak's mistress, Olga Ivinskaya. However the elder of Pasternak's sisters stated that on a visit to her in Berlin in the late 1930s, Pasternak told her of the nascent character of Lara, years before he met Ivinskaya in 1946.
After the death of Joseph Stalin on March 5, 1953, Pasternak was unimpressed by Khrushchev thaw. He confided in Ivinskaya, "For so long we were ruled over by a madman and a murderer -- and now by a fool and a pig. The madman had his occasional flights of fancy, he had an intuitive feeling for certain things, despite his wild obscurantism. Now we are ruled over by mediocrities..."Ivinskaya further recalled,
"At this period, B[oris] L[eonidovich] was reading George Orwell's Animal Farm in the English original and he hugely enjoyed this merciless satire about a society of animals which mutiny against their human masters, and then gradually revert to a wretched caricature of their original condition. The animals were presided over by a fat hog who vividly reminded B[oris] L[eonidovich] of our head of state. Sometimes he said laughingly that Khrushchev put his collar around the wrong part of his anatomy."
After his own novel was denied publication by the journal Novy Mir, Pasternak arranged for Doctor Zhivago to be smuggled abroad by Sir Isaiah Berlin. In 1957, the novel was printed by the multi-billionaire Italian publisher, Giangiacomo Feltrinelli. To the outrage of the Politburo, the novel became an instant sensation throughout the non-Communist world. As retaliation for his role in Doctor Zhivago's publication, Feltrinelli was expelled in disgrace from the Italian Communist Party.
Between 1958 and 1959, the English language edition spent 26 weeks at the top of The New York Times' bestseller list. Although none of his Soviet critics had the chance to read the proscribed novel, several officials of the Writer's Union publicly demanded, "kick the pig out of our kitchen-garden," i.e., expel Pasternak from the USSR. This led to a humorous Russian saying, "I did not read Pasternak, but I condemn him".
Meanwhile, as the novel topped international bestseller lists, the British MI6 and the American CIA commenced an operation to ensure that Doctor Zhivago was correctly submitted to the Nobel Committee. This was done because it was known that a Nobel Prize for Boris Pasternak would seriously harm the international credibility of the Soviet Union. As a result, British and American operatives intercepted and photographed a manuscript of the novel and secretly printed a small number of books in the Russian language. These were submitted to the Nobel Committee's surprised judges just ahead of the deadline.
Soon after, on 23 October, 1958, Boris Pasternak was announced as the winner of the 1958 Nobel Prize for Literature. The citation credited Pasternak's contribution to Russian lyric poetry and for his role in, "continuing the great Russian epic tradition." On 25 October, Pasternak sent a telegram to the Swedish Academy:
"Immensely thankful, touched, proud, astonished, abashed.Acting on direct orders from the Politburo, the KGB surrounded Pasternak's dacha in Peredelkino. Pasternak was not only threatened with arrest, but the KGB also vowed to send his beloved Olia back to the GULAG. It was further hinted that, if Pasternak traveled to Sweden to collect his Nobel Medal, he would be refused re-entry to the Soviet Union.
As a result, Pasternak sent a second telegram to the Nobel Committee:
Considering the meaning this award has been given in the society to which I belong, I must refuse it. Please do not take offense at my voluntary rejection.
The Swedish Academy announced:
This refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award. There remains only for the Academy, however, to announce with regret that the presentation of the Prize cannot take place.Despite his decision to decline the award, the Soviet Union of Writers continued to denounce Pasternak in the Soviet press. What is more, he was threatened at the very least with formal exile to the West. In response, Pasternak wrote directly to Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev,
"Leaving the motherland will equal death for me. I am tied to Russia by birth, by life and work."
As a result of this and the intercession of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Pasternak was not expelled from his homeland.
Meanwhile, Bill Mauldin produced a political cartoon lampooning the Soviet State's campaign against Boris Pasternak. Pasternak and another prisoner in the GULAG, splitting trees in the snow. In the caption, Pasternak says, "I won the Nobel Prize for literature. What was your crime?" The cartoon won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1959.
Death and legacy
Boris Pasternak wrote his last complete book, When the Weather Clears, in 1959. That summer, he began The Blind Beauty, a stage play about an enslaved artist during the period of serfdom in Russia, but fell ill with lung cancer before he could complete it.
Pasternak died of lung cancer in his dacha in Peredelkino on the evening of 30 May 1960. Despite only a small notice appearing in the Literary Gazette, thousands of people traveled from Moscow to his funeral in Peredelkino. "Volunteers carried his open coffin to his burial place and those who were present (including the poet Andrey Voznesensky) recited from memory the banned poem 'Hamlet'."
The poet and bard Alexander Galich wrote a politically charged song dedicated to Pasternak's memory.
His father's Nobel medal was ultimately presented to Yevgeny Borisovich Pasternak in Stockholm during the Nobel week of December 1989. At the ceremony, acclaimed Russian cellist Mstislav Rostropovich performed a Bach serenade in honor of his deceased countryman.
In 1988, after decades of circulating in Samizdat, Doctor Zhivago was finally published in the author's homeland.
In 2007, The Times at last revealed that the involvement of British and American intelligence officers in ensuring Pasternak's Nobel victory. When Yevgeny Borisovich Pasternak was questioned about this, however, he responded that his father was completely unaware of the actions of Western intelligence services. Yevgeny further declared that the Nobel Prize caused his father nothing but severe grief and harassment at the hands of the Soviet State.
The Pasternak family papers are stored at the Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University. They contain correspondence, drafts of Doctor Zhivago and other writings, photographs, and other material, of Boris Pasternak and other family members.
A minor planet 3508 Pasternak, discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkina in 1980 is named after him.
Russian-American singer and songwriter Regina Spektor recited a verse from "Black Spring", a 1912 poem by Pasternak in her song "Apres Moi" from her album Begin to Hope.
The first English language translation of Doctor Zhivago was hastily produced by Max Hayward and Manya Harari in order to coincide with Pasternak's Nobel victory. It was released in August 1958, and remained the only edition available for more than fifty years.
In October 2010, Random House released Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky's translation of Doctor Zhivago.
The first screen adaptation of Doctor Zhivago, adapted by Robert Bolt and directed by David Lean, appeared in 1965. The film, which toured in the roadshow tradition, starred Omar Sharif, Geraldine Chaplin, and Julie Christie. Concentrating on the love triangle aspects of the novel, the film became a worldwide blockbuster, but was unavailable in Russia until Perestroika.
In 2002, the novel was adapted as a television miniseries. Directed by Giacomo Campiotti, the serial starred Hans Matheson, Alexandra Maria Lara and Keira Knightley.
The Russian TV version of 2006, directed by Alexander Proshkin and starring Oleg Menshikov as Zhivago, is considered more faithful to Pasternak's novel than David Lean's 1965 film.
- Olga Ivinskaya, A Captive of Time; My Years with Pasternak, Doubleday, 1978. Translated by Max Hayward.
- List of Jewish Nobel laureates
- Leon Pasternak.
- http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Pasternak.html Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
- Boris Pasternak, "I Remember: Sketch for an Autobiography, page 25.
- Boris Pasternak, I Remember; Sketches for an Autobiography, Pantheon Books, 1959. Pages 27-28.
- "Sister My Life" Boris Pasternak. Translated by C. Flayderman. Introduction by Robert Payne. Washington Square Press, 1967.
- Bayley, John (5 December 1985). "Big Three". The New York Review of Books 32.
- A Captive of Time, page 28.
- Olga Ivinskaya, A Captive of Time, pages 28-29.
- A Captive of Time, page 29.
- Boris Pasternak, I Remember: Sketch for an Autobiography, page 142.
- A Captive of Time, page 79.
- A Captive of Time, page 79.
- A Captive of Time, page 61.
- A Captive of Time, page 62.
- A Captive of Time, page 62.
- A Captive of Time, page 62.
- A Captive of Time, pages 62-63.
- A Captive of Time, page 63.
- '"A Captive of Time, pages 132-133
- Olga Ivinskaya, A Captive of Time: My Years with Pasternak, page 133.
- Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: Court of the Red Tsar, page 98.
- Today in Literary History, Salon, 30 May 2002. URL accessed on 28 September 2007.
- Olga Ivinskaya, A Captive of Time: My Years with Pasternak, Doubleday and Company, 1978. Page 142.
- Ivinskaya, A Captive of Time, page 142.
- 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 How the CIA won Zhivago a Nobel
- 25.0 25.1 The Plot Thickens A New Book Promises an Intriguing Twist to the Epic Tale of 'Doctor Zhivago'
- Frenz, Horst (ed.) (1969). Literature 1901-1967, Amsterdam: Elsevier. (Via Nobel Prize in Literature 1958 - Announcement. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 24 May 2007.)
- Pasternak, Boris (1983). Pasternak: Selected Poems, trans. Jon Stallworthy and Peter France, Penguin.
- Bill Mauldin Beyond Willie and Joe (Library of Congress)
- Hostage of Eternity: Boris Pasternak (Hoover Institution)
- Conference set on Doctor Zhivago writer (Stanford Report, 28 April 2004)
- Pasternak, Boris (1983). Pasternak: Selected Poems, trans. Jon Stallworthy and Peter France, Penguin.
- Boris Pasternak: The Nobel Prize. Son's memoirs. (Pravda, 18 December 2003)
- Contents of Novy Mir magazines (Russian)
- Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, 5th, p. 294, New York: Springer Verlag.
- "Doctor Zhivago", by Boris Pasternak, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. Reviewed by Masha Karp.
- Selected Poems of Boris Pasternak translated into English by A. Kneller
- (English) Collection of Poems by Boris Pasternak
- 1958 Nobel Prize in Literature
- Homegrown Doctor Zhivago to Debut on Russian Television
- Pasternak's elegy to Tsvetaeva and short bio
- PBS biography of Pasternak
- Read Pasternak's interview with The Paris Review
- A documentary of Pasternak's life is presently in production in Brisbane Australia and will be available in 2010 from BFTS & Dark Corp
- English translation of Pasternak's poem February
- Register of the Pasternak Family Papers at the Hoover Institution Archives
- (Russian) Boris Pasternak Poem
- (Russian) Pasternak: biography, photos, poems, prose, critical essays
- (Russian) Boris Pasternak: poems, biography, photo
- English translations of 3 short poem, 1915-1918
- Snow Fall, Winter Night in verse translations by Alexander Givental (UC Berkeley)mrj:, pnb: