born on 17/1/1927 in North, SC, United States
died on 25/12/2008 in New York City, NY, United States
Eartha Mae Kitt (January 17, 1927 – December 25, 2008) was an American singer, actress, dancer, activist and comedian, known for her highly distinctive singing style and her 1953 recordings of "C'est si bon" and the enduring Christmas novelty smash "Santa Baby", which were both US Top 10 hits. Orson Welles once called her the "most exciting woman in the world".
Kitt began her career in 1943 and appeared in the 1945 original Broadway theatre production of the musical Carib Song. In the early 1950s, she had six US Top 30 hits, including "Uska Dara" and "I Want to be Evil". Her other notable recordings include the UK Top 10 hit "Under the Bridges of Paris" (1954), "Just an Old Fashioned Girl" (1956) and "Where Is My Man" (1983). She starred in 1967 as Catwoman, in the third and final season of the television series Batman. In 1968, her career in America suffered after she made anti-war statements at a White House luncheon. Ten years later, she made a successful return to Broadway in the 1978 original production of the musical Timbuktu!, for which she received the first of her two Tony Award nominations. Her second was for the 2000 original production of the musical The Wild Party. Kitt wrote three autobiographies—Thursday's Child (1956), Alone with Me (1976) and I'm Still Here: Confessions of a Sex Kitten (1989). She also played Lady Eloise in the 1992 film Boomerang, starring Eddie Murphy.
Kitt found a new generation of fans through her roles in the Disney films The Emperor's New Groove (2000), in which she voiced the villainous Yzma, and Holes (2003). She reprised the role as Yzma in the direct-to-video sequel Kronk's New Groove (2005), as well as the animated series The Emperor's New School (2006–2008). Her work on the latter earned her two Daytime Emmy Awards. She posthumously won a third Emmy in 2010 for her guest performance on Wonder Pets.
Kitt was born Eartha Mae Keith on a cotton plantation near the small town of North, in Orangeburg County, South Carolina on January 17, 1927. Her mother Annie Mae Keith was of Cherokee and African descent.
Though it remains unconfirmed, it has been widely reported that her father was of German descent and that Kitt was conceived by rape. She had no knowledge of her father, except that his surname was Keith and that he was supposedly a son of the owner of the farm where she had been born. Newspaper obituaries state that her white father was "a poor cotton farmer".
In an August 2013 biography, British journalist John Williams claimed that Kitt's father was a white man, a local doctor named Daniel Sturkie. However, Kitt's daughter Kitt Shapiro has questioned the accuracy of the claim.
Kitt was raised by Annie Mae Keith, later changed to Annie Mae Riley, a black woman whom the girl believed to be her mother. When she was eight, Annie Mae went to live with a black man, but he refused to accept Kitt because of her relatively pale complexion, so the girl lived with another family until Riley's death. She was then sent to live in New York City with Mamie Keitt, where she attended the Metropolitan Vocational High School (later renamed the High School of Performing Arts).
Kitt began her career as a member of the Katherine Dunham Company in 1943 and remained a member of the troupe until 1948. A talented singer with a distinctive voice, she recorded the hits "Let's Do It", "Champagne Taste", "C'est si bon" (which Stan Freberg famously burlesqued), "Just an Old Fashioned Girl", "Monotonous", "Je cherche un homme", "Love for Sale", "I'd Rather Be Burned as a Witch", "Kâtibim" (a Turkish melody), "Mink, Schmink", "Under the Bridges of Paris" and her most recognizable hit "Santa Baby", which was released in 1953.
Kitt's unique style was enhanced as she became fluent in French during her years performing in Europe. She spoke four languages and sang in eleven, which she effortlessly demonstrated in many of the live recordings of her cabaret performances.
In 1950, Orson Welles gave Kitt her first starring role as Helen of Troy in his staging of Dr. Faustus. Two years later, she was cast in the revue New Faces of 1952, introducing "Monotonous" and "Bal, Petit Bal", two songs with which she is still identified. In 1954, 20th Century Fox distributed an independently-filmed version of the revue entitled New Faces, in which she performed "Monotonous", "Uska Dara", "C'est si bon", and "Santa Baby". Though it is often alleged that Welles and Kitt had an affair during her 1957 run in Shinbone Alley, Kitt categorically denied this in a June 2001 interview with George Wayne of Vanity Fair. "I never had sex with Orson Welles," Kitt told Vanity Fair: "It was a working situation and nothing else." Her other films in the 1950s included Mark of the Hawk (1957), St. Louis Blues (1958) and Anna Lucasta (1959).
Throughout the rest of the 1950s and early 1960s, she recorded; worked in film, television, and nightclubs; and returned to the Broadway stage, in Mrs. Patterson (during the 1954–1955 season), Shinbone Alley (in 1957), and the short-lived Jolly's Progress (in 1959). In 1964, Kitt helped open the Circle Star Theater in San Carlos, California.
In the late 1960s, Batman featured Kitt as Catwoman after Julie Newmar had left the show in 1967.
In 1968, during Lyndon B. Johnson's administration, Kitt encountered a substantial professional setback after she made anti-war statements during a White House luncheon. Kitt was asked by Lady Bird Johnson about the Vietnam War. She replied: "You send the best of this country off to be shot and maimed. No wonder the kids rebel and take pot."
During a question and answer session, Kitt stated:
The children of America are not rebelling for no reason. They are not hippies for no reason at all. We don't have what we have on Sunset Blvd. for no reason. They are rebelling against something. There are so many things burning the people of this country, particularly mothers. They feel they are going to raise sons – and I know what it's like, and you have children of your own, Mrs. Johnson – we raise children and send them to war.
Her remarks reportedly caused Mrs. Johnson to burst into tears and led to a derailment in Kitt's career. Publicly ostracized in the United States, she devoted her energies to performances in Europe and Asia. It is said that Kitt's career in the United States was ended following her comments about the Vietnam War, after which she was branded "a sadistic nymphomaniac" by the CIA.
In the 1970s, Kitt appeared on television several times on BBC's long running variety show, "The Good Old Days", and took over from fellow American Dolores Gray, in the London West End production of Stephen Sondheim's Follies and returned at the end of that run to star in a One Woman Show at the same Shaftesbury Theatre, both to tremendous acclaim. In both those shows performing the show-stopping theatrical anthem I'm Still Here.
Kitt returned to New York City in a triumphant turn in the Broadway spectacle Timbuktu! (a version of the perennial Kismet, set in Africa) in 1978. In the musical, one song gives a "recipe" for mahoun, a preparation of cannabis, in which her sultry purring rendition of the refrain "constantly stirring with a long wooden spoon" was distinctive. She was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical for her performance.
In the late 1990s, she appeared as the Wicked Witch of the West in the North American national touring company of The Wizard of Oz. In 2000, Kitt again returned to Broadway in the short-lived run of Michael John LaChiusa's The Wild Party. Beginning in late 2000, Kitt starred as the Fairy Godmother in the U.S. national tour of Cinderella. In 2003, she replaced Chita Rivera in Nine. Kitt reprised her role as the Fairy Godmother at a special engagement of Cinderella, which took place at Lincoln Center during the holiday season of 2004.
From October to early December 2006, Kitt co-starred in the Off-Broadway musical Mimi le Duck.
In 1978, Kitt did the voice-over in a television commercial for the album Aja by the rock group Steely Dan. One of her more unusual roles was as Kaa in a 1994 BBC Radio adaptation of The Jungle Book. Kitt also lent her distinctive voice to Yzma in The Emperor's New Groove (for which she won her first Annie Award) and reprised her role in Kronk's New Groove and The Emperor's New School, for which she won two Emmy Awards and, in 2007–08, two more Annie Awards for Voice Acting in an Animated Television Production. Kitt had voiced Vexus in My Life as a Teenage Robot.
In 1984, she returned to the music charts with a disco song titled "Where Is My Man", the first certified gold record of her career. "Where Is My Man" reached the Top 40 on the UK Singles Chart, where it peaked at No. 36; the song became a standard in discos and dance clubs of the time and made the Top 10 on the US Billboard dance chart, where it reached No. 7. The single was followed by the album I Love Men on the Record Shack label. Kitt found new audiences in nightclubs across the UK and the United States, including a whole new generation of gay male fans, and she responded by frequently giving benefit performances in support of HIV/AIDS organizations. Her 1989 follow-up hit "Cha-Cha Heels" (featuring Bronski Beat), which was originally intended to be recorded by Divine, received a positive response from UK dance clubs and reached No. 32 in the charts in that country.
Kitt appeared with Jimmy James and George Burns at a fundraiser in 1990 produced by Scott Sherman, agent from the Atlantic Entertainment Group. It was arranged that James would impersonate Kitt and then Kitt would walk out to take the microphone. This was met with a standing ovation.
In 1991, Kitt returned to the screen in Ernest Scared Stupid as Old Lady Hackmore. In 1992, she had a supporting role as Lady Eloise in Boomerang. In 1995, Kitt appeared as herself in an episode of The Nanny, where she performed a song in French and flirted with Maxwell Sheffield (Charles Shaughnessy). In November 1996, she appeared in an episode of Celebrity Jeopardy!.
Kitt was the spokesperson for MAC Cosmetics' Smoke Signals collection in August 2007. She re-recorded "Smoke Gets In Your Eyes" for the occasion, was showcased on the MAC website, and the song was played at all MAC locations carrying the collection for the month.
She also appeared in the 2007 independent film And Then Came Love opposite Vanessa Williams.
In her later years, Kitt made annual appearances in the New York Manhattan cabaret scene at venues such as the Ballroom and the Café Carlyle.
In April 2008, just months before her death, Eartha Kitt appeared at the Cheltenham Jazz Festival. The performance was recorded and is available on DVD "eartha kitt live at the cheltenham jazz festival". It includes "Alone" - an autobiographical reflection in song.
She was also a guest star in "Once Upon a Time in Springfield" of The Simpsons, where she was depicted as one of Krusty's past marriages.
After romances with the cosmetics magnate Charles Revson and banking heir John Barry Ryan III, she married John William McDonald, an associate of a real estate investment company, on June 6, 1960. They had one child, a daughter named Kitt McDonald, born on November 26, 1961. They divorced in 1965.
A long-time Connecticut resident, Eartha Kitt lived in a converted barn on a sprawling farm in the Merryall section of New Milford for many years and was active in local charities and causes throughout Litchfield County. She later moved to Pound Ridge, New York, but returned in 2002 to the southern Fairfield County Connecticut town of Weston, in order to be near her daughter Kitt and family. Her daughter, Kitt, married Charles Lawrence Shapiro in 1987 and had two children: Jason Shapiro and Rachel Shapiro.
Kitt was active in numerous social causes in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1966, she established the Kittsville Youth Foundation, a chartered and non-profit organization for underprivileged youths in the Watts area of Los Angeles. She was also involved with a group of youths in the area of Anacostia in Washington, D.C., who called themselves "Rebels with a Cause." Kitt supported the groups' efforts to clean up streets and establish recreation areas in an effort to keep them out of trouble by testifying with them before the House General Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. In her testimony, in May 1967, Kitt stated that the Rebels' "achievements and accomplishments should certainly make the adult 'do-gooders' realize that these young men and women have performed in 1 short year - with limited finances - that which was not achieved by the same people who might object to turning over some of the duties of planning, rehabilitation, and prevention of juvenile delinquents and juvenile delinquency to those who understand it and are living it". She added that "the Rebels could act as a model for all urban areas throughout the United States with similar problems". "Rebels with a Cause" subsequently received the needed funding.
Kitt was also a member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, thus her criticism of the Vietnam War and its connection to poverty and racial unrest in 1968 can be seen as part of a larger commitment to peace activism.
Like many politically active public figures of her time, Kitt was under surveillance by the CIA, beginning in 1956. After the New York Times discovered the CIA file on Kitt in 1975, she granted the paper permission to print portions of the report, stating: "I have nothing to be afraid of and I have nothing to hide."
Kitt later became a vocal advocate for LGBT rights and publicly supported same-sex marriage, which she considered a civil right. She had been quoted as saying: "I support it [gay marriage] because we're asking for the same thing. If I have a partner and something happens to me, I want that partner to enjoy the benefits of what we have reaped together. It's a civil-rights thing, isn't it?" Kitt famously appeared at many LGBT fundraisers, including a mega event in Baltimore, Maryland, with George Burns and Jimmy James. Scott Sherman, an agent at Atlantic Entertainment Group, stated: "Eartha Kitt is fantastic... appears at so many LGBT events in support of civil rights."
In a 1992 interview with Dr. Anthony Clare, Kitt spoke about her gay following, saying:
We're all rejected people, we know what it is to be refused, we know what it is to be oppressed, depressed, and then, accused, and I am very much cognizant of that feeling. Nothing in the world is more painful than rejection. I am a rejected, oppressed person, and so I understand them, as best as I can, even though I am a heterosexual.
Kitt died from colon cancer on Christmas Day 2008, at her home in Weston, Connecticut.
Her daughter, Kitt Shapiro, discussed her last days with her mother:
I was with her when she died. She left this world literally screaming at the top of her lungs. I was with her constantly, she lived not even 3 miles from my house, we were together practically every day. She was home for the last few weeks when the doctor told us there was nothing they could do any more. Up until the last two days, she was still moving around. The doctor told us she will leave very quickly and her body will just start to shut down. But when she left, she left the world with a bang, she left it how she lived it. She screamed her way out of here, literally. I truly believe her survival instincts were so part of her DNA that she was not going to go quietly or willingly. It was just the two of us hanging out [during the last days] she was very funny. We didn't have to [talk] because I always knew how she felt about me. I was the love of her life, so the last part of her life we didn't have to have these heart to heart talks.
She started to see people that weren't there. She thought I could see them too, but, of course, I couldn't. I would make fun of her like, "I'm going to go in the other room and you stay here and talk to your friends."
Awards and nominations
Kitt won awards for her film, television, and stage work. In 1960, the Hollywood Walk of Fame honored her with a star, which can be found on 6656 Hollywood Boulevard.
|1949-51||unknown||unknown||It is noted in the original sleeve notes of Kitt's first musical release in the United Kingdom, That Bad Eartha 10" LP, that during her time in Paris, before her brief return to the United Kingdom in 1951, "she made two films in the French capital". This fact is also supported by many of her biographies. Currently only one of these films is known.|
|1951||Parigi è sempre Parigi||Cabaret Singer,
|1954||New Faces||Herself||First credited film role, launched mainstream career|
|1957||The Mark of the Hawk||Renee|
|1958||St. Louis Blues||Gogo Germaine|
|1959||Anna Lucasta||Anna Lucasta|
|1961||Saint of Devil's Island||Annette|
|1965||Uncle Tom's Cabin||Singer (uncredited)|
|1971||Up the Chastity Belt||Scheherazade|
|1975||Friday Foster||Madame Rena|
|1979||Butterflies in Heat||Lola|
|1985||The Serpent Warriors||Snake Priestess|
|1987||Master of Dragonard Hill||Naomi|
|The Pink Chiquitas||Betty / The Meteor (voice)|
|1989||Erik the Viking||Freya|
|1990||Living Doll||Mrs. Swartz|
|1991||Ernest Scared Stupid||Old Lady Hackmore|
|1993||Fatal Instinct||First Trial Judge|
|1996||Harriet the Spy||Agatha K. Plummer|
|1997||Ill Gotten Gains||The Wood (Voice)|
|1998||I Woke Up Early The Day I Died||Cult Leader|
|Jungle Book: Mowgli's Story||Bagheera (voice)|
|2000||The Emperor's New Groove||Yzma (voice)
|2005||Preaching to the Choir||Ms. Nettie|
|Kronk's New Groove||Yzma (voice)|
|2007||And Then Came Love||Mona||Last motion picture appearance|
|1965||I Spy||"The Loser"||Angel||
|1967||Mission: Impossible||"The Traitor"||Tina Maria|
|1967-1968||Batman||"The Joke's on Catwoman"
"The Funny Feline Felonies"
"Catwoman's Dressed to Kill"
|1972||Lieutenant Schuster's Wife (TV movie)||Lady|
|1974||The Protectors||"A Pocketful of Posies"||Carrie Blaine|
|To Kill a Cop (TV movie)||Paula|
|1983||A Night on the Town (TV movie)|
|1985||Miami Vice||"Whatever Works"||Priestess Chata|
|1989||After Dark||"Rock Bottom?"||Extended appearance on discussion programme, together with Simon Napier-Bell and Pat Kane among others|
|1993||Jack's Place||"The Seventh Meal"||Isabel Lang|
|Matrix||"Moths to a Flame"||Sister Rowena|
|1994||Space Ghost Coast to Coast||Batmantis||Herself|
|1995||The Magic School Bus||"Going Batty"||Mrs. Franklin (voice)|
|New York Undercover||"Student Affairs"||Mrs. Stubbs|
|Living Single||"He Works Hard for the Money"||Jacqueline Richards||
|1996||The Nanny||"A pup in paris "||herself|
|1998||The Wild Thornberrys||"Flood Warning"||Lioness #1 (voice)|
|1999||The Famous Jett Jackson||"Field of Dweebs"||Albertine Whethers|
|2000||Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child||"The Snow Queen"||The Snow Queen (voice)|
|Welcome to New York||"The Car"
"Jim Gets a Car"
|2001||The Feast of All Saints (TV movie)||Lola Dede|
|Santa, Baby! (TV movie)||Emerald (voice)|
|2005||Escape from Cluster Prime (TV movie)||Vexus (voice)|
|My Life as a Teenage Robot||7 episodes||Queen Vexus (voice)|
|2006-2008||The Emperor's New School||Yzma (voice)||
|2007||American Dad!||"Dope and Faith"||Fortune Teller (voice)|
|2009||The Wonder Pets||"Save the Cool Cat and the Hip Hippo/Tuck and Buck"||Cool Cat (voice)||
|2010||The Simpsons||"Once Upon a Time in Springfield"||Herself (voice)||Aired posthumously|
|1982||All by Myself: The Eartha Kitt Story (Documentary)||Herself|
|2002||The Making and Meaning of We Are Family (Documentary)||Herself|
|The Sweatbox (Documentary)||Herself|
|1945||Blue Holiday||Broadway||Performer||as a member of the Katherine Dunham Troupe; a short-lived production at the Belasco Theatre|
|Carib Song||Broadway||Company||as a member of the Katherine Dunham Troupe; performed at the Adelphi Theatre as an Original Broadway production|
|1946||Bal Nègre||Broadway, and Europe||Performer||as a member of the Katherine Dunham Troupe; widely acclaimed Concert at the Belasco Theatre|
|unknown||Mexico||Performer||performed successfully as a member of the Katherine Dunham Troupe which was under contract with Teatro Americano for more than two months at the request of Doris Duke|
|1948||Caribbean Rhapsody||West End, and Paris||Chorus girl||as a member of the Katherine Dunham Troupe; performed at the Prince of Wales Theatre (West End) and Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (Paris)|
|first solo show / leading performance; performed at Carroll's Niterie; is where Orson Welles discovered her|
|1950||Time Runs||Paris||Helen of Troy||In segment based on Faust; performed "Hungry Little Trouble" written by Duke Ellington; cast by Orson Welles|
|An Evening With Orson Welles||Frankfurt|
|1951||Dr. Faustus||Paris||with Orson Welles|
|1952||New Faces of 1952||Broadway||Polynesian girl,
|1954||Mrs. Patterson||Broadway||Theodora (Teddy) Hicks||Original Broadway production|
|1957||Shinbone Alley||Broadway||Mehitabel||Original Broadway production|
|1959||Jolly's Progress||Broadway||Jolly Rivers|
|1965||The Owl and the Pussycat||U.S. National Tour||Performer|
|1970||The High Bid||London||Performer|
|1974||Bread and Beans and Things||Aquarius Theater||Performer|
|1976||A Musical Jubilee||U.S. National Tour||Performer|
|1980||Cowboy and the Legend||Regional (US)||Performer|
|1982||New Faces of 1952 (Revival)||Off-Off-Broadway||Polynesian girl
|1985||Blues in the Night||U.S. National Tour||Performer|
|1987||Follies (London Revival)||London||Carlotta Campion||Replacement for Dolores Gray|
|1989||Aladdin||Palace Theatre, Manchester||Performer|
|1989||Eartha Kitt in Concert||London||Performer|
|1995||Sam's Song||Unitarian Church of All Souls||Performer||Benefit concert|
|1996||Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill||Chicago||Performer|
|1998||The Wizard of Oz (Return Engagement) [off-Broadway]||U.S. National Tour||Performer|
|2000||The Wild Party||Broadway||Delores||Original Broadway production
|Cinderella||Madison Square Garden, and U.S. National Tour||Fairy Godmother|
|2003||Nine||Broadway||Liliane La Fleur||Replacement for Chita Rivera|
|2004||Cinderella (New York City Opera Revival)||David H. Koch Theater||Fairy Godmother|
|2006||Mimi le Duck||Off-Off-Broadway||Madame Vallet|
|2007||All About Us||Westport Country Playhouse||Performer|
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- Hall, Phil (January 4, 2001). "New Faces". Film Threat.
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- "Eartha Kitt". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
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- James, Frank (December 26, 2008). "Eartha Kitt versus the LBJs". The Swamp. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009.
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- "Where Is My Man". Chart Stats. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02.
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). Hot Dance/Disco 1974–2003. Record Research Inc.
- Scott Duncan, "George Burns, Eartha Kitt are delightful at 'Lifesongs 1990'", The Baltimore Sun, September 17, 1990.
- "Eartha Kitt Obituary". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- Personal attendance & possession
- "Eartha Kitt to Be Married". The New York Times. May 12, 1960. p. 40. (subscription required)
- "Kitt McDonald is Wed to Charles L. Shapiro". The New York Times. June 14, 1987.
- Johnson, Robert E. (June 14, 1973). "Eartha Kitt Observes Seventh Year With Black Ghetto School". Jet 44: 56.
- Hearings, 90th Cong., 1st Sess. 558 (1967). pp. 559-60.
- Kitt, Eartha (1976). Alone With Me. H. Regnery Co. p. 239. ISBN 9780809283514.
- Blackwell, Joyce (2004). No Peace Without Freedom: Race and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 9780809325641.
- Hersh, Seymour (January 3, 1975). "C.I.A. in '68 Gave Secret Service Report Containing Gossip About Eartha Kitt After White House Incident". The New York Times, p. 28, col. 1.
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- Kitt Shapiro daughter Eartha Kitt offers Business Advice. Mommynoise.com. October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
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- That Bad Eartha 10" Long Play (United Kingdom Version) (sleeve note). Eartha Kitt. His Master's Voice. 1955.
- Pear, Nancy (1993). "Contemporary Musicians". 2004 Gale, a part of Cengage Learning & HighBeam Research. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- "Paris Is Always Paris (1951) - Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- "No Sign Due to Sickness". Weta Digital. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eartha Kitt.|
- Official website
- Eartha Kitt on IMDb
- Eartha Kitt at the Internet Broadway Database
- Eartha Kitt at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Eartha Kitt at TV Guide
- Eartha Kitt interview video at the Archive of American Television
Video / audio footage
- "An Evening with Eartha Kitt". Say Brother. WGBH-TV. September 14, 1979.
- "Singer And Actress Eartha Kitt Dies". All Things Considered. NPR. December 25, 2008.
- "Eartha Kitt on Piano Jazz". Piano Jazz. NPR. May 1, 2009 (recorded February 12, 1993).
- "Eartha Kitt". National Visionary Leadership Project.
- Walsh, David (December 27, 2008). "Harold Pinter and Eartha Kitt, artists and opponents of imperialist war". World Socialist Web Site.
- Gent, Helen (May 4, 2009). "Eartha Kitt: The Feline Femme Fatale". Marie Claire (Australia).
- Williams, John L. (2013), America's Mistress: the Life and Times of Eartha Kitt, Quercus.